Adenosine is a ubiquitous endogenous autacoid whose effects are triggered through the enrollment of four G protein-coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Due to the rapid generation of adenosine from cellular metabolism, and the widespread distribution of its receptor subtypes in almost all organs and tissues, this nucleoside induces a multitude of physiopathological effects, regulating central nervous, cardiovascular, peripheral, and immune systems. It is becoming clear that the expression patterns of adenosine receptors vary among cell types, lending weight to the idea that they may be both markers of pathologies and useful targets for novel drugs. This review offers an overview of current knowledge on adenosine receptors, including their characteristic structural features, molecular interactions and cellular functions, as well as their essential roles in pain, cancer, and neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Finally, we highlight the latest findings on molecules capable of targeting adenosine receptors and report which stage of drug development they have reached.

Pharmacology of Adenosine Receptors: The State of the Art

Borea, Pier Andrea
Primo
;
Gessi, Stefania
;
Merighi, Stefania
;
Vincenzi, Fabrizio;Varani, Katia
Ultimo
2018

Abstract

Adenosine is a ubiquitous endogenous autacoid whose effects are triggered through the enrollment of four G protein-coupled receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Due to the rapid generation of adenosine from cellular metabolism, and the widespread distribution of its receptor subtypes in almost all organs and tissues, this nucleoside induces a multitude of physiopathological effects, regulating central nervous, cardiovascular, peripheral, and immune systems. It is becoming clear that the expression patterns of adenosine receptors vary among cell types, lending weight to the idea that they may be both markers of pathologies and useful targets for novel drugs. This review offers an overview of current knowledge on adenosine receptors, including their characteristic structural features, molecular interactions and cellular functions, as well as their essential roles in pain, cancer, and neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases. Finally, we highlight the latest findings on molecules capable of targeting adenosine receptors and report which stage of drug development they have reached.
2018
Borea, Pier Andrea; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Varani, Katia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2391482
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