Background and aims: We aimed to describe the limitations of familiar hypercholesterolemia (FH) diagnosis in childhood based on the presence of the typical features of FH, such as physical sings of cholesterol accumulation and personal or family history of premature cardiovascular disease or hypercholesterolemia, comparing their prevalence in the adult and paediatric FH population, and to illustrate how additional information can lead to a more effective diagnosis of FH at a younger age.Methods: From the Italian LIPIGEN cohort, we selected 1188 (>= 18 years) and 708 (<18 years) genetically-confirmed heterozygous FH, with no missing personal FH features. The prevalence of personal and familial FH features was compared between the two groups. For a sub-group of the paediatric cohort (N = 374), data about premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in second-degree family members were also included in the evaluation.Results: The lower prevalence of typical FH features in children/adolescents vs adults was confirmed: the prevalence of tendon xanthoma was 2.1% vs 13.1%, and arcus cornealis was present in 1.6% vs 11.2% of the cohorts, respectively. No children presented clinical history of premature CHD or cerebral/peripheral vascular disease compared to 8.8% and 5.6% of adults, respectively. The prevalence of premature CHD in first-degree relatives was significantly higher in adults compared to children/adolescents (38.9% vs 19.7%). In the sub-cohort analysis, a premature CHD event in parents was reported in 63 out of 374 subjects (16.8%), but the percentage increased to 54.0% extending the evaluation also to second-degree relatives.Conclusions: In children, the typical FH features are clearly less informative than in adults. A more thorough data collection, adding information about second-degree relatives, could improve the diagnosis of FH at younger age.

Refinement of the diagnostic approach for the identification of children and adolescents affected by familial hypercholesterolemia: Evidence from the LIPIGEN study

Sergio D'Addato
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Edoardo Dalla Nora
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Angelina Passaro
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2023

Abstract

Background and aims: We aimed to describe the limitations of familiar hypercholesterolemia (FH) diagnosis in childhood based on the presence of the typical features of FH, such as physical sings of cholesterol accumulation and personal or family history of premature cardiovascular disease or hypercholesterolemia, comparing their prevalence in the adult and paediatric FH population, and to illustrate how additional information can lead to a more effective diagnosis of FH at a younger age.Methods: From the Italian LIPIGEN cohort, we selected 1188 (>= 18 years) and 708 (<18 years) genetically-confirmed heterozygous FH, with no missing personal FH features. The prevalence of personal and familial FH features was compared between the two groups. For a sub-group of the paediatric cohort (N = 374), data about premature coronary heart disease (CHD) in second-degree family members were also included in the evaluation.Results: The lower prevalence of typical FH features in children/adolescents vs adults was confirmed: the prevalence of tendon xanthoma was 2.1% vs 13.1%, and arcus cornealis was present in 1.6% vs 11.2% of the cohorts, respectively. No children presented clinical history of premature CHD or cerebral/peripheral vascular disease compared to 8.8% and 5.6% of adults, respectively. The prevalence of premature CHD in first-degree relatives was significantly higher in adults compared to children/adolescents (38.9% vs 19.7%). In the sub-cohort analysis, a premature CHD event in parents was reported in 63 out of 374 subjects (16.8%), but the percentage increased to 54.0% extending the evaluation also to second-degree relatives.Conclusions: In children, the typical FH features are clearly less informative than in adults. A more thorough data collection, adding information about second-degree relatives, could improve the diagnosis of FH at younger age.
2023
Manuela, Casula; Marta, Gazzotti; Maria Elena, Capra; Elena, Olmastroni; Federica, Galimberti; Alberico L, Catapano; Pederiva, ; Adriano Anesi, Cristina; Arca, Marcello; Auricchio, Renata; Averna, Maurizio; Baldera, Davide; Banderali, Giuseppe; Beccuti, Guglielmo; Benso, Andrea; Berteotti, Martina; Bertolini, Stefano; Bianconi, Vanessa; Biasucci, Giacomo; Biolo, Gianni; Bonanni, Luca; Borghi, Claudio; Carlo Bossi, Antonio; Branchi, Adriana; Bruzzi, Patrizia; Bucci, Marco; Sabrina Buonuomo, Paola; Calabrò, Paolo; Calandra, Sebastiano; Carubbi, Francesca; Cavallaro, Raimondo; Baldassarre Cefalù, Angelo; Cesaro, Arturo; Cipollone, Francesco; Citroni, Nadia; Colombo, Emanuela; Coppola, Chiara; D'Addato, Sergio; Dal Pino, Beatrice; DALLA NORA, Edoardo; De Corrado, Giuseppe; Del Ben, Maria; Di Molfetta, Sergio; Donata Di Taranto, Maria; Fainelli, Giulia; Federici, Massimo; Ferri, Claudio; Maria Fiorenza, Anna; Formisano, Elena; Fortunato, Giuliana; Giaccari, Andrea; Giorgino, Francesco; Grigore, Liliana; Guardamagna, Ornella; Iannuzzi, Arcangelo; Iannuzzo, Gabriella; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Lia, Salvatore; Longo, Susanna; Lupi, Alessandro; Mandraffino, Giuseppe; Marcucci, Rossella; Maroni, Lorenzo; Massini, Giulia; Mazza, Elisa; Melchioda, Elena; Meregalli, Giancarla; Minicocci, Ilenia; Moffa, Simona; Mombelli, Giuliana; Muntoni, Sandro; Nascimbeni, Fabio; Alberto Negri, Emanuele; Notargiacomo, Serena; Maria Panfili, Filippo; Parati, Gianfranco; Passaro, Angelina; Pavanello, Chiara; Pecchioli, Valerio; Pecchioli, Lorenzo; Pellegatta, Fabio; Massimo Perla, Francesco; Pipolo, Antonio; Piro, Salvatore; Pirro, Matteo; Pisciotta, Livia; Pujia, Roberta; Putotto, Carolina; Repetti, Elena; Rinaldi, Elisabetta; Romandini, Alessandra; Sani, Elena; Sarnari, Silvia; Sarzani, Riccardo; Sbrana, Francesco; Scicali, Roberto; Scuruchi, Michele; Suppressa, Patrizia; Tarugi, Patrizia; Trenti, Chiara; Vinci, Pierandrea; Pablo Werba, José; Zambon, Sabina; Zambon, Alberto; Grazia Zenti, Maria
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