Dietary lipids are pivotal in modulating metabolic inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators characterizing metabolic inflammation, interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been consistently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate whether the quality of lipid intake impacts upon IL-18 plasma levels and the implications on insulin resistance computed by the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using a cross-sectional design, this study confirmed that IL-18 correlated positively with insulin resistance and individuals with a HOMA-IR = 2.5 displayed higher circulating IL-18 levels compared with their insulin-sensitive counterparts. In terms of the effect of the quality of dietary lipids on IL-18 circulating levels, the ratio between monounsaturated, omega-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids correlated negatively with IL-18. Despite this, IL-18 circulating levels, but not dietary fatty acid quality, predicted insulin resistance. Nevertheless, the ratio between omega 3 and saturated fatty acids was a predictor of IL-18 plasma levels. Thus, the downregulation of IL-18 may underpin, at least partially, the beneficial metabolic effects of substituting omega 3 for saturated fatty acids with this cytokine potentially representing a biomarker linking dietary lipids and metabolic outcomes.

Interleukin-18 Is a Potential Biomarker Linking Dietary Fatty Acid Quality and Insulin Resistance: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Italy

Sergi, Domenico
Co-primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Sanz, Juana Maria
Co-primo
Formal Analysis
;
Brombo, Gloria
Investigation
;
Zuliani, Giovanni
Resources
;
Dalla Nora, Edoardo
Penultimo
Investigation
;
Passaro, Angelina
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2023

Abstract

Dietary lipids are pivotal in modulating metabolic inflammation. Among the inflammatory mediators characterizing metabolic inflammation, interleukin 18 (IL-18) has been consistently associated with obesity and insulin resistance. This study aims to evaluate whether the quality of lipid intake impacts upon IL-18 plasma levels and the implications on insulin resistance computed by the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Using a cross-sectional design, this study confirmed that IL-18 correlated positively with insulin resistance and individuals with a HOMA-IR = 2.5 displayed higher circulating IL-18 levels compared with their insulin-sensitive counterparts. In terms of the effect of the quality of dietary lipids on IL-18 circulating levels, the ratio between monounsaturated, omega-3, polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids as well as the intake of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids correlated negatively with IL-18. Despite this, IL-18 circulating levels, but not dietary fatty acid quality, predicted insulin resistance. Nevertheless, the ratio between omega 3 and saturated fatty acids was a predictor of IL-18 plasma levels. Thus, the downregulation of IL-18 may underpin, at least partially, the beneficial metabolic effects of substituting omega 3 for saturated fatty acids with this cytokine potentially representing a biomarker linking dietary lipids and metabolic outcomes.
2023
Sergi, Domenico; Sanz, Juana Maria; Lazzer, Stefano; Brombo, Gloria; Zuliani, Giovanni; Biolo, Gianni; Šimunič, Boštjan; Pišot, Rado; Dalla Nora, Edoardo; Passaro, Angelina
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2526951
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