[18F]F-FDG (FDG) PET is emerging as a relevant diagnostic and prognostic tool in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), as a simultaneous decrease in [68Ga]Ga-DOTA peptides and increase in FDG uptake (the “flip-flop” phenomenon) occurs during the natural history of these tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations on FDG PET in NEN patients treated with two different schemes of radioligand therapy (RLT) and to correlate them with clinical–pathologic variables. A prospective evaluation of 108 lesions in 56 patients (33 males and 23 females; median age, 64.5 years) affected by NENs of various primary origins (28 pancreatic, 13 gastrointestinal, 9 bronchial, 6 unknown primary (CUP-NENs) and 1 pheochromocytoma) and grades (median Ki-67 = 9%) was performed. The patients were treated with RLT within the phase II clinical trial FENET-2016 (CTID: NCT04790708). RLT was offered for 32 patients with the MONO scheme (five cycles of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATOC) and for 24 with the DUO scheme (three cycles of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATOC alternated with two cycles of [90Y]Y-DOTATOC). Variations in terms of the ΔSUVmax of a maximum of three target lesions per patient (58 for MONO and 50 for DUO RLT) were assessed between baseline and 3 months post-RLT FDG PET. In patients with negative baseline FDG PET, the three most relevant lesions on [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-peptide PET were assessed and matched on post-RLT FDG PET, to check for any possible changes in FDG avidity. Thirty-five patients (62.5%) had at least one pathological FDG uptake at the baseline scans, but the number was reduced to 29 (52%) after RLT. In the patients treated with DUO-scheme RLT, 20 out of 50 lesions were FDG positive before therapy, whereas only 14 were confirmed after RLT (p = 0.03). Moreover, none of the 30 FDG-negative lesions showed an increased FDG uptake after RLT. The lesions of patients with pancreatic and CUP-NENs treated with the DUO scheme demonstrated a significant reduction in ΔSUVmax in comparison to those treated with MONO RLT (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, we found a mild positive correlation between the grading and ΔSUVmax in patients treated with the MONO scheme (r = 0.39, p < 0.02), while no evidence was detected for patients treated with the DUO scheme. Our results suggest that RLT, mostly with the DUO scheme, could be effective in changing NEN lesions’ glycometabolism, in particular, in patients affected by pancreatic and CUP-NENs, regardless of their Ki-67 index. Probably, associating [90Y]Y-labelled peptides, which have high energy emission and a crossfire effect, and [177Lu]Lu ones, characterized by a longer half-life and a safer profile for organs at risk, might represent a valid option in FDG-positive NENs addressed to RLT. Further studies are needed to validate our preliminary findings. In our opinion, FDG PET/CT should represent a potent tool for fully assessing a patient’s disease characteristics, both before and after RLT.

Glucose Metabolism Modification Induced by Radioligand Therapy with [177Lu]Lu/[90Y]Y-DOTATOC in Advanced Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: A Prospective Pilot Study within FENET-2016 Trial

Urso L.
Primo
;
Panareo S.
Secondo
;
Ambrosio M. R.;Zatelli M. C.;Caracciolo M.;Valpiani G.;Boschi A.;Uccelli L.
;
Cittanti C.
Penultimo
;
Bartolomei M.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

[18F]F-FDG (FDG) PET is emerging as a relevant diagnostic and prognostic tool in neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs), as a simultaneous decrease in [68Ga]Ga-DOTA peptides and increase in FDG uptake (the “flip-flop” phenomenon) occurs during the natural history of these tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations on FDG PET in NEN patients treated with two different schemes of radioligand therapy (RLT) and to correlate them with clinical–pathologic variables. A prospective evaluation of 108 lesions in 56 patients (33 males and 23 females; median age, 64.5 years) affected by NENs of various primary origins (28 pancreatic, 13 gastrointestinal, 9 bronchial, 6 unknown primary (CUP-NENs) and 1 pheochromocytoma) and grades (median Ki-67 = 9%) was performed. The patients were treated with RLT within the phase II clinical trial FENET-2016 (CTID: NCT04790708). RLT was offered for 32 patients with the MONO scheme (five cycles of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATOC) and for 24 with the DUO scheme (three cycles of [177Lu]Lu-DOTATOC alternated with two cycles of [90Y]Y-DOTATOC). Variations in terms of the ΔSUVmax of a maximum of three target lesions per patient (58 for MONO and 50 for DUO RLT) were assessed between baseline and 3 months post-RLT FDG PET. In patients with negative baseline FDG PET, the three most relevant lesions on [68Ga]Ga-DOTA-peptide PET were assessed and matched on post-RLT FDG PET, to check for any possible changes in FDG avidity. Thirty-five patients (62.5%) had at least one pathological FDG uptake at the baseline scans, but the number was reduced to 29 (52%) after RLT. In the patients treated with DUO-scheme RLT, 20 out of 50 lesions were FDG positive before therapy, whereas only 14 were confirmed after RLT (p = 0.03). Moreover, none of the 30 FDG-negative lesions showed an increased FDG uptake after RLT. The lesions of patients with pancreatic and CUP-NENs treated with the DUO scheme demonstrated a significant reduction in ΔSUVmax in comparison to those treated with MONO RLT (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, we found a mild positive correlation between the grading and ΔSUVmax in patients treated with the MONO scheme (r = 0.39, p < 0.02), while no evidence was detected for patients treated with the DUO scheme. Our results suggest that RLT, mostly with the DUO scheme, could be effective in changing NEN lesions’ glycometabolism, in particular, in patients affected by pancreatic and CUP-NENs, regardless of their Ki-67 index. Probably, associating [90Y]Y-labelled peptides, which have high energy emission and a crossfire effect, and [177Lu]Lu ones, characterized by a longer half-life and a safer profile for organs at risk, might represent a valid option in FDG-positive NENs addressed to RLT. Further studies are needed to validate our preliminary findings. In our opinion, FDG PET/CT should represent a potent tool for fully assessing a patient’s disease characteristics, both before and after RLT.
Urso, L.; Panareo, S.; Castello, A.; Ambrosio, M. R.; Zatelli, M. C.; Caracciolo, M.; Tonini, E.; Valpiani, G.; Boschi, A.; Uccelli, L.; Cittanti, C.; Bartolomei, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2497082
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