Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative pathologies. Its incidence is in dramatic growth in Western societies and there is a need of both biomarkers to support the clinical diagnosis and drugs for the treatment of AD. The diagnostic criteria of AD are based on clinical data. However, it is necessary to develop biomarkers considering the neuropathology of AD. The A2A receptor, a G-protein coupled member of the P1 family of adenosine receptors, has different functions crucial for neurodegeneration. Its activation in the hippocampal region regulates synaptic plasticity and in particular glutamate release, NMDA receptor activation and calcium influx. Additionally, it exerts effects in neuroinflammation, regulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In AD patients, its expression is increased in the hippocampus/entorhinal cortex more than in the frontal cortex, a phenomenon not observed in age-matched control brains, indicating an association with AD pathology. It is upregulated in peripheral blood cells of patients affected by AD, thus reflecting its increase at central neuronal level. This review offers an overview on the main AD biomarkers and the potential role of A2A adenosine receptor as a new marker and therapeutic target.

A2A Adenosine Receptor as a Potential Biomarker and a Possible Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease

Gessi, Stefania
Primo
;
Varani, Katia;Pasquini, Silvia;Vincenzi, Fabrizio;Borea, Pier Andrea;Merighi, Stefania
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative pathologies. Its incidence is in dramatic growth in Western societies and there is a need of both biomarkers to support the clinical diagnosis and drugs for the treatment of AD. The diagnostic criteria of AD are based on clinical data. However, it is necessary to develop biomarkers considering the neuropathology of AD. The A2A receptor, a G-protein coupled member of the P1 family of adenosine receptors, has different functions crucial for neurodegeneration. Its activation in the hippocampal region regulates synaptic plasticity and in particular glutamate release, NMDA receptor activation and calcium influx. Additionally, it exerts effects in neuroinflammation, regulating the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In AD patients, its expression is increased in the hippocampus/entorhinal cortex more than in the frontal cortex, a phenomenon not observed in age-matched control brains, indicating an association with AD pathology. It is upregulated in peripheral blood cells of patients affected by AD, thus reflecting its increase at central neuronal level. This review offers an overview on the main AD biomarkers and the potential role of A2A adenosine receptor as a new marker and therapeutic target.
Gessi, Stefania; Poloni, Tino Emanuele; Negro, Giulia; Varani, Katia; Pasquini, Silvia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Borea, Pier Andrea; Merighi, Stefania
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2474888
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