About 40 years ago the lipidization of hydrophilic drugs was proposed to induce their brain targeting by transforming them into lipophilic prodrugs. Unfortunately, lipidization often transforms a hydrophilic neuroactive agent into an active efflux transporter (AET) substrate, with consequent rejection from the brain after permeation across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Currently, the prodrug approach has greatly evolved in comparison to lipidization. This review describes the evolution of the prodrug approach for brain targeting considering the design of prodrugs as active influx substrates or molecules able to inhibit or elude AETs. Moreover, the prodrug approach appears strategic in optimization of the encapsulation of neuroactive drugs in nanoparticulate systems that can be designed to induce their receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB by appropriate decorations on their surface. Nasal administration is described as a valuable alternative to obtain the brain targeting of drugs, evidencing that the prodrug approach can allow the optimization of micro or nanoparticulate nasal formulations of neuroactive agents in order to obtain this goal. Furthermore, nasal administration is also proposed for prodrugs characterized by peripheral instability but potentially able to induce their targeting inside cells of the brain.

Targeting systems to the brain obtained by merging prodrugs, nanoparticles, and nasal administration

Botti G.
Primo
;
Dalpiaz A.
Secondo
;
Pavan B.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

About 40 years ago the lipidization of hydrophilic drugs was proposed to induce their brain targeting by transforming them into lipophilic prodrugs. Unfortunately, lipidization often transforms a hydrophilic neuroactive agent into an active efflux transporter (AET) substrate, with consequent rejection from the brain after permeation across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Currently, the prodrug approach has greatly evolved in comparison to lipidization. This review describes the evolution of the prodrug approach for brain targeting considering the design of prodrugs as active influx substrates or molecules able to inhibit or elude AETs. Moreover, the prodrug approach appears strategic in optimization of the encapsulation of neuroactive drugs in nanoparticulate systems that can be designed to induce their receptor-mediated transport (RMT) across the BBB by appropriate decorations on their surface. Nasal administration is described as a valuable alternative to obtain the brain targeting of drugs, evidencing that the prodrug approach can allow the optimization of micro or nanoparticulate nasal formulations of neuroactive agents in order to obtain this goal. Furthermore, nasal administration is also proposed for prodrugs characterized by peripheral instability but potentially able to induce their targeting inside cells of the brain.
2021
Botti, G.; Dalpiaz, A.; Pavan, B.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2462852
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