Hospitals are the main source of pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) released into the environment. Generally, their discharges are co-treated with domestic wastewaters, resulting in a decrement of the recalcitrant compounds concentrations in the final effluent due to water dilution. However, as many PhCs resist normal treatments, pollutant load does not change. This paper compares the chemical characteristics of hospital and domestic wastewaters (in terms of macro-pollutants as well as main PhCs) on the basis of an experimental investigation and literature data. A membrane biological reactor pilot plant fed by a hospital effluent is tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of treating these kinds of wastewaters with membrane systems. The paper then presents the possible scenarios in the management of the effluent of a large hospital situated in a small town. In particular, it reports on a case study of designing a (new) treatment plant for the effluent of the 900 bed hospital in Ferrara, Northern Italy, located in the outskirts of the town, Finally, costs for the intervention are given.

Management of Hospital Wastewaters: the Case of the Effluent of a Large Hospital Situated in a Small Town

VERLICCHI, Paola;GALLETTI, Alessio;MASOTTI, Luigi
2010

Abstract

Hospitals are the main source of pharmaceutical compounds (PhCs) released into the environment. Generally, their discharges are co-treated with domestic wastewaters, resulting in a decrement of the recalcitrant compounds concentrations in the final effluent due to water dilution. However, as many PhCs resist normal treatments, pollutant load does not change. This paper compares the chemical characteristics of hospital and domestic wastewaters (in terms of macro-pollutants as well as main PhCs) on the basis of an experimental investigation and literature data. A membrane biological reactor pilot plant fed by a hospital effluent is tested in order to evaluate the feasibility of treating these kinds of wastewaters with membrane systems. The paper then presents the possible scenarios in the management of the effluent of a large hospital situated in a small town. In particular, it reports on a case study of designing a (new) treatment plant for the effluent of the 900 bed hospital in Ferrara, Northern Italy, located in the outskirts of the town, Finally, costs for the intervention are given.
2010
Verlicchi, Paola; Galletti, Alessio; Masotti, Luigi
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/1393116
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