The recent draft of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive pays attention to contaminants of emerging concern including organic micropollutants (OMPs) and requires the removal of some of them at large urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) calling for their upgrading. Many investigations to date have reported the occurrence of a vast group of OMPs in the raw influent and many technologies have been tested for their removal at a lab- or pilot-scale. Moreover, hospital wastewater (HWW) may contain specific OMPs at a high concentration and therefore its treatment deserves attention. In this study, a 1-year investigation was carried out at a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating mainly HWW. To promote the removal of OMPs, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added to the bioreactor at 0.1 g/L and 0.2 g/L which resulted in the MBR operating as a hybrid MBR. Its performance was tested for 232 target and 90 non-target OMPs, analysed by UHPLC-QTOF-MS using a direct injection method. The wastewater arriving at the WWTP was characterized and the performance of both the MBR and hybrid MBR was assessed for: key OMPs selected on the basis of their frequency, occurrence, persistence to removal, bioaccumulation and toxicity; OMP classes; and the whole list of OMPs. Finally, an environmental risk assessment of the OMP residues was conducted by means of the risk quotient approach. The results indicate that PAC addition increased the removal of most of the key OMPs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, lidocaine) and OMP classes (e.g., antibiotics, psychiatric drugs and stimulants) with the highest loads in the WWTP influent. The hybrid MBR also reduced the risk in the receiving water as the PAC dosage increased mainly for spiramycin, lorazepam, oleandomycin. Finally, uncertainties and issues related to the investigation being carried out at full-scale under real conditions are discussed in depth.

A thorough analysis of the occurrence, removal and environmental risks of organic micropollutants in a full-scale hybrid membrane bioreactor fed by hospital wastewater

Marina, Gutierrez
Primo
;
Paola, Verlicchi
Ultimo
2024

Abstract

The recent draft of the Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive pays attention to contaminants of emerging concern including organic micropollutants (OMPs) and requires the removal of some of them at large urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) calling for their upgrading. Many investigations to date have reported the occurrence of a vast group of OMPs in the raw influent and many technologies have been tested for their removal at a lab- or pilot-scale. Moreover, hospital wastewater (HWW) may contain specific OMPs at a high concentration and therefore its treatment deserves attention. In this study, a 1-year investigation was carried out at a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating mainly HWW. To promote the removal of OMPs, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was added to the bioreactor at 0.1 g/L and 0.2 g/L which resulted in the MBR operating as a hybrid MBR. Its performance was tested for 232 target and 90 non-target OMPs, analysed by UHPLC-QTOF-MS using a direct injection method. The wastewater arriving at the WWTP was characterized and the performance of both the MBR and hybrid MBR was assessed for: key OMPs selected on the basis of their frequency, occurrence, persistence to removal, bioaccumulation and toxicity; OMP classes; and the whole list of OMPs. Finally, an environmental risk assessment of the OMP residues was conducted by means of the risk quotient approach. The results indicate that PAC addition increased the removal of most of the key OMPs (e.g., sulfamethoxazole, diclofenac, lidocaine) and OMP classes (e.g., antibiotics, psychiatric drugs and stimulants) with the highest loads in the WWTP influent. The hybrid MBR also reduced the risk in the receiving water as the PAC dosage increased mainly for spiramycin, lorazepam, oleandomycin. Finally, uncertainties and issues related to the investigation being carried out at full-scale under real conditions are discussed in depth.
2024
GUTIERREZ PULPEIRO, Marina; Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Stipaničev, Draženka; Repec, Siniša; Avolio, Francesco; Zanella, Marcello; Verlicchi, Paola
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2533730
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