Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding (UGIB) spans from minor bleeding to life-threatening events. Identification of early signs of shock, proper management of hemodynamically unstable patients, and correct risk stratification are essential for an appropriate diagnostic workup and therapy. This case reports a young man admitted to the emergency department with haematemesis. His medical history was unremarkable, without any risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding. A few hours after admission, further episodes of haematemesis occurred, and the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated to irreversible shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed morphological features of chronic liver disease and oesophagal varices. The patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, confirming oesophagal varices with massive bleeding. Although promptly applied, endoscopic hemostasis was ineffective, and the patient died twenty-four hours after admission. Based on this case, we reviewed the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with massive UGIB and provided a practical approach to this life-threatening emergency.

A case of hemorrhagic shock due to massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding: from the differential diagnosis to the correct management

Beatrice Marziani
Primo
;
Michele Domenico Spampinato
Secondo
;
Fabio Caputo;Matteo Guarino;Francesco Luppi;Benedetta Perna;Angelina Passaro;Daniele Cariani;Rosario Arena;Roberto De Giorgio
Ultimo
2023

Abstract

Upper Gastro-Intestinal Bleeding (UGIB) spans from minor bleeding to life-threatening events. Identification of early signs of shock, proper management of hemodynamically unstable patients, and correct risk stratification are essential for an appropriate diagnostic workup and therapy. This case reports a young man admitted to the emergency department with haematemesis. His medical history was unremarkable, without any risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding. A few hours after admission, further episodes of haematemesis occurred, and the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated to irreversible shock. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) revealed morphological features of chronic liver disease and oesophagal varices. The patient underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, confirming oesophagal varices with massive bleeding. Although promptly applied, endoscopic hemostasis was ineffective, and the patient died twenty-four hours after admission. Based on this case, we reviewed the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with massive UGIB and provided a practical approach to this life-threatening emergency.
2023
Marziani, Beatrice; Spampinato, MICHELE DOMENICO; Caputo, Fabio; Guarino, Matteo; Luppi, Francesco; Perna, Benedetta; Passaro, Angelina; Cariani, Daniele; Merighi, Alberto; Arena, Rosario; DE GIORGIO, Roberto
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2529954
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