Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme primarily responsible for crosslinking proteins. Ubiquitously expressed in humans, TG2 can act either as a transamidase by crosslinking two substrates through formation of an Ne(G-glutaminyl)lysine bond or as an intracellular G-protein. These discrete roles are tightly regulated by both allosteric and environmental stimuli and are associated with dramatic changes in the conformation of the enzyme. The pleiotropic nature of TG2 and multi-faceted activities have resulted in TG2 being implicated in numerous disease pathologies including celiac disease, fibrosis, and cancer. Targeted TG2 therapies have not been selective for subcellular localization, such that currently no tools exist to selectively target extracellular over intracellular TG2. Herein, we have designed novel TG2-selective inhibitors that are not only highly potent and irreversible, but also cell impermeable, targeting only extracellular TG2. We have also further derivatized the scaffold to develop probes that are intrinsically fluorescent or bear an alkyne handle, which target both intra- and extracellular TG2, in order to facilitate cellular labelling and pull-down assays. The fluorescent probes were internalized and imaged in cellulo, and provide the first implicit experimental evidence that by comparison with their cell-impermeable analogues, it is specifically intracellular TG2, and presumably its G-protein activity, that contributes to transglutaminase-associated cancer progression.

Cell-Impermeable Inhibitors Confirm That Intracellular Human Transglutaminase 2 Is Responsible for the Transglutaminase-Associated Cancer Phenotype

Brugnoli, Federica;Bianchi, Nicoletta;
2023

Abstract

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme primarily responsible for crosslinking proteins. Ubiquitously expressed in humans, TG2 can act either as a transamidase by crosslinking two substrates through formation of an Ne(G-glutaminyl)lysine bond or as an intracellular G-protein. These discrete roles are tightly regulated by both allosteric and environmental stimuli and are associated with dramatic changes in the conformation of the enzyme. The pleiotropic nature of TG2 and multi-faceted activities have resulted in TG2 being implicated in numerous disease pathologies including celiac disease, fibrosis, and cancer. Targeted TG2 therapies have not been selective for subcellular localization, such that currently no tools exist to selectively target extracellular over intracellular TG2. Herein, we have designed novel TG2-selective inhibitors that are not only highly potent and irreversible, but also cell impermeable, targeting only extracellular TG2. We have also further derivatized the scaffold to develop probes that are intrinsically fluorescent or bear an alkyne handle, which target both intra- and extracellular TG2, in order to facilitate cellular labelling and pull-down assays. The fluorescent probes were internalized and imaged in cellulo, and provide the first implicit experimental evidence that by comparison with their cell-impermeable analogues, it is specifically intracellular TG2, and presumably its G-protein activity, that contributes to transglutaminase-associated cancer progression.
2023
Gates, Eric W J; Calvert, Nicholas D; Cundy, Nicholas J; Brugnoli, Federica; Navals, Pauline; Kirby, Alexia; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Adhikary, Gautam; Shuhendler, Adam J; Eckert, Richard L; Keillor, Jeffrey W
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2526732
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