Cardiac ventricular outpouchings and invaginations are rare structural abnormalities and usually incidental findings during cardiac imaging. A definitive diagnosis is possible through the use of multimodality imaging. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in November 2022 to identify studies regarding ventricular outpouchings and invaginations. The main aim of the review is to summarize knowledge regarding epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prognosis of patients with ventricular outpouchings (aneurisms or diverticula) and invaginations (crypts and recesses). Overall, 26 studies published between 2000 and 2020 were included in the review. Diverticula and congenital aneurysms incidence ranges between 0.6 and 4.1%. Myocardial recesses and crypts range between 9% in the general population and up to 25% in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The combined use of echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography (CCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is useful to establish tissue contractility, fibrosis, extension and relationship with adjacent structures for differential diagnosis of both invaginations and outpouchings. In conclusion, both outpouchings and invaginations are rare entities: a definitive diagnosis may be aided by the use of combining multiple imaging techniques, and the treatment depends both on the lesion-specific risk of complications and on the potential association of some lesions with cardiomyopathy.
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