Herein, the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol in a series of SBA-15-pr-SO3H catalysts with different pore sizes is reported. Elemental analysis and NMR relaxation/diffusion methods show that changes in pore size have a significant effect on catalyst activity and durability. In particular, the decrease in catalyst activity after catalyst reuse is mainly due to carbonaceous deposition, whereas leaching of sulfonic acid groups is not significant. This effect is more pronounced in the largest-pore-size catalyst C3, which rapidly deactivates after one reaction cycle, whereas catalysts with a relatively medium and small average pore size (named, respectively, C2 and C1) deactivate after two reaction cycles and to a lesser extent. CHNS elemental analysis showed that C1 and C3 experience a similar amount of carbonaceous deposition, suggesting that the increased reusability of the small-pore-size catalyst can be attributed to the presence of SO3H groups mostly present on the external surface, as corroborated by results on pore clogging obtained by NMR relaxation measurements. The increased reusability of the C2 catalyst is attributed to a lower amount of humin being formed and, at the same time, reduced pore clogging, which helps to maintain accessible the internal pore space.

Humin Formation on SBA-15-pr-SO3H Catalysts during the Alcoholysis of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate: Effect of Pore Size on Catalyst Stability, Transport, and Adsorption

Graziano Di Carmine
;
Costanza Leonardi;Olga Bortolini;Alessandro Massi;
2023

Abstract

Herein, the alcoholysis of furfuryl alcohol in a series of SBA-15-pr-SO3H catalysts with different pore sizes is reported. Elemental analysis and NMR relaxation/diffusion methods show that changes in pore size have a significant effect on catalyst activity and durability. In particular, the decrease in catalyst activity after catalyst reuse is mainly due to carbonaceous deposition, whereas leaching of sulfonic acid groups is not significant. This effect is more pronounced in the largest-pore-size catalyst C3, which rapidly deactivates after one reaction cycle, whereas catalysts with a relatively medium and small average pore size (named, respectively, C2 and C1) deactivate after two reaction cycles and to a lesser extent. CHNS elemental analysis showed that C1 and C3 experience a similar amount of carbonaceous deposition, suggesting that the increased reusability of the small-pore-size catalyst can be attributed to the presence of SO3H groups mostly present on the external surface, as corroborated by results on pore clogging obtained by NMR relaxation measurements. The increased reusability of the C2 catalyst is attributed to a lower amount of humin being formed and, at the same time, reduced pore clogging, which helps to maintain accessible the internal pore space.
2023
DI CARMINE, Graziano; Leonardi, Costanza; Forster, Luke; Hu, Min; Lee, Daniel; Parlett, Christopher M. A.; Bortolini, Olga; Isaacs, Mark A.; Massi, Alessandro; D’Agostino, Carmine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2511831
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