Introduction: The pathophysiology of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is incompletely known. A robust inflammatory response caused by viral replication is a main cause of the acute lung and multiorgan injury observed in critical patients. Inflammasomes are likely players in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a plasma membrane ATP-gated ion channel, is a main activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, of the ensuing release of inflammatory cytokines and of cell death by pyroptosis. The P2X7R has been implicated in COVID-19-dependent hyperinflammation and in the associated multiorgan damage. Shed P2X7R (sP2X7R) and shed NLRP3 (sNLRP3) have been detected in plasma and other body fluids, especially during infection and inflammation. Methods: Blood samples from 96 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with various degrees of disease severity were tested at the time of diagnosis at hospital admission. Standard haematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, sP2X7R and sNLRP3 levels were measured, compared to reference values, statistically validated, and correlated to clinical outcome. Results: Most COVID-19 patients included in this study had lymphopenia, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, increased inflammatory and coagulation indexes, and augmented sNLRP3, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Blood concentration of sP2X7R was also increased, and significantly positively correlated with lymphopenia, procalcitonin (PCT), IL-10, and alanine transaminase (ALT). Patients with increased sP2X7R levels at diagnosis also showed fever and respiratory symptoms, were more often transferred to Pneumology division, required mechanical ventilation, and had a higher likelihood to die during hospitalization. Conclusion: Blood sP2X7R was elevated in the early phases of COVID-19 and predicted an adverse clinical outcome. It is suggested that sP2X7R might be a useful marker of disease progression.

The shed P2X7 receptor is an index of adverse clinical outcome in COVID-19 patients

Vultaggio-Poma, Valentina
Co-primo
Investigation
;
Sanz, Juana Maria
Co-primo
Formal Analysis
;
Amico, Andrea
Secondo
Methodology
;
Violi, Alessandra
Investigation
;
Ghisellini, Sara
Investigation
;
Passaro, Angelina
Conceptualization
;
Papi, Alberto
Resources
;
Libanore, Marco
Resources
;
Di Virgilio, Francesco
Penultimo
Funding Acquisition
;
Giuliani, Anna Lisa
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2023

Abstract

Introduction: The pathophysiology of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is incompletely known. A robust inflammatory response caused by viral replication is a main cause of the acute lung and multiorgan injury observed in critical patients. Inflammasomes are likely players in COVID-19 pathogenesis. The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a plasma membrane ATP-gated ion channel, is a main activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome, of the ensuing release of inflammatory cytokines and of cell death by pyroptosis. The P2X7R has been implicated in COVID-19-dependent hyperinflammation and in the associated multiorgan damage. Shed P2X7R (sP2X7R) and shed NLRP3 (sNLRP3) have been detected in plasma and other body fluids, especially during infection and inflammation. Methods: Blood samples from 96 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with various degrees of disease severity were tested at the time of diagnosis at hospital admission. Standard haematological parameters and IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, sP2X7R and sNLRP3 levels were measured, compared to reference values, statistically validated, and correlated to clinical outcome. Results: Most COVID-19 patients included in this study had lymphopenia, eosinopenia, neutrophilia, increased inflammatory and coagulation indexes, and augmented sNLRP3, IL-6 and IL-10 levels. Blood concentration of sP2X7R was also increased, and significantly positively correlated with lymphopenia, procalcitonin (PCT), IL-10, and alanine transaminase (ALT). Patients with increased sP2X7R levels at diagnosis also showed fever and respiratory symptoms, were more often transferred to Pneumology division, required mechanical ventilation, and had a higher likelihood to die during hospitalization. Conclusion: Blood sP2X7R was elevated in the early phases of COVID-19 and predicted an adverse clinical outcome. It is suggested that sP2X7R might be a useful marker of disease progression.
2023
Vultaggio-Poma, Valentina; Sanz, Juana Maria; Amico, Andrea; Violi, Alessandra; Ghisellini, Sara; Pizzicotti, Stefano; Passaro, Angelina; Papi, Alberto; Libanore, Marco; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Giuliani, Anna Lisa
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2510210
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