Organic and microbial contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), even though not yet regulated, are of great concern in reclaimed water reuse projects. Due to the large number of CECs and their different characteristics, it is useful to include only a limited number of them in monitoring programs. The selection of the most representative CECs is still a current and open question. This study presents a new methodology for this scope, in particular for the evaluation of the performance of a polishing treatment and the assessment of the risk for the environment and the irrigated crops. As to organic CECs, the methodology is based on four criteria (occurrence, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity) expressed in terms of surrogates (respectively, concentrations in the secondary effluent, removal achieved in conventional activated sludge systems, Log Kow and predicted-no-effect concentration). It consists of: (i) development of a dataset including the CECs found in the secondary effluent, together with the corresponding values of surrogates found in the literature or by in-field investigations; (ii) normalization step with the assignment of a score between 1 (low environmental impact) and 5 (high environmental impact) to the different criteria based on threshold values set according to the literature and experts’ judgment; (iii) CEC ranking according to their final score obtained as the sum of the specific scores; and (iv) selection of the representative CECs for the different needs. Regarding microbial CECs, the selection is based on their occurrence and their highest detection frequency in the secondary effluent and in the receiving water, the antibiotic consumption patterns, and recommendations by national and international organizations. The methodology was applied within the ongoing reuse project SERPIC resulting in a list of 30 indicator CECs, including amoxicillin, bisphenol A, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, erythromycin, ibuprofen, iopromide, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, Escherichia coli, faecal coliform, 16S rRNA, sul1, and sul2.

Selection of indicator contaminants of emerging concern when reusing reclaimed water for irrigation — A proposed methodology

Verlicchi, P.
Primo
Methodology
;
Grillini, V.;
2023

Abstract

Organic and microbial contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), even though not yet regulated, are of great concern in reclaimed water reuse projects. Due to the large number of CECs and their different characteristics, it is useful to include only a limited number of them in monitoring programs. The selection of the most representative CECs is still a current and open question. This study presents a new methodology for this scope, in particular for the evaluation of the performance of a polishing treatment and the assessment of the risk for the environment and the irrigated crops. As to organic CECs, the methodology is based on four criteria (occurrence, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity) expressed in terms of surrogates (respectively, concentrations in the secondary effluent, removal achieved in conventional activated sludge systems, Log Kow and predicted-no-effect concentration). It consists of: (i) development of a dataset including the CECs found in the secondary effluent, together with the corresponding values of surrogates found in the literature or by in-field investigations; (ii) normalization step with the assignment of a score between 1 (low environmental impact) and 5 (high environmental impact) to the different criteria based on threshold values set according to the literature and experts’ judgment; (iii) CEC ranking according to their final score obtained as the sum of the specific scores; and (iv) selection of the representative CECs for the different needs. Regarding microbial CECs, the selection is based on their occurrence and their highest detection frequency in the secondary effluent and in the receiving water, the antibiotic consumption patterns, and recommendations by national and international organizations. The methodology was applied within the ongoing reuse project SERPIC resulting in a list of 30 indicator CECs, including amoxicillin, bisphenol A, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, erythromycin, ibuprofen, iopromide, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, Escherichia coli, faecal coliform, 16S rRNA, sul1, and sul2.
2023
Verlicchi, P.; Grillini, V.; Lacasa, E.; Archer, E.; Krzeminski, P.; Gomes, A. I.; Vilar, V. J. P.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Gäbler, J.; Schäfer, L.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Verlicchi pre-publication CEC selection SERPIC.pdf

embargo fino al 23/02/2025

Tipologia: Post-print
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.28 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.28 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1 Supplementary Material_2 17 gen.xlsx

embargo fino al 23/02/2025

Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 547.94 kB
Formato Microsoft Excel XML
547.94 kB Microsoft Excel XML   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1_Supplementary Material_1 14 feb.docx

embargo fino al 23/02/2025

Tipologia: Altro materiale allegato
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 691.03 kB
Formato Microsoft Word XML
691.03 kB Microsoft Word XML   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1-s2.0-S0048969723009750-main.pdf

solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: Full text (versione editoriale)
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 1.24 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.24 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1 Paper Selection PRE print.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Pre-print
Licenza: PUBBLICO - Pubblico con Copyright
Dimensione 642.38 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
642.38 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2504890
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 6
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 5
social impact