Severe gut motility disorders are characterized by ineffective propulsion of intestinal contents. As a result, patients often develop extremely uncomfortable symptoms, ranging from nausea and vomiting along with alterations of bowel habits, up to radiologically confirmed subobstructive episodes. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a typical clinical phenotype of severe gut dysmotility due to morphological and functional alterations of the intrinsic (enteric) innervation and extrinsic nerve supply (hence neuropathy), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) (mesenchymopathy), and smooth muscle cells (myopathy). In this chapter, we highlight some molecular mechanisms of CIPO and review the clinical phenotypes and the genetics of the different types of CIPO. Specifically, we will detail the role of some of the most representative genetic mutations involving RAD21, LIG3, and ACTG2 to provide a better understanding of CIPO and related underlying neuropathic or myopathic histopathological abnormalities. This knowledge may unveil targeted strategies to better manage patients with such severe disease.

Clinical and Pathological Features of Severe Gut Dysmotility

Elena Bonora
Secondo
;
Matteo Guarino;Maurizio Mazzoni;Giacomo Caio;Roberto De Giorgio
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Severe gut motility disorders are characterized by ineffective propulsion of intestinal contents. As a result, patients often develop extremely uncomfortable symptoms, ranging from nausea and vomiting along with alterations of bowel habits, up to radiologically confirmed subobstructive episodes. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a typical clinical phenotype of severe gut dysmotility due to morphological and functional alterations of the intrinsic (enteric) innervation and extrinsic nerve supply (hence neuropathy), interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) (mesenchymopathy), and smooth muscle cells (myopathy). In this chapter, we highlight some molecular mechanisms of CIPO and review the clinical phenotypes and the genetics of the different types of CIPO. Specifically, we will detail the role of some of the most representative genetic mutations involving RAD21, LIG3, and ACTG2 to provide a better understanding of CIPO and related underlying neuropathic or myopathic histopathological abnormalities. This knowledge may unveil targeted strategies to better manage patients with such severe disease.
2022
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, Enteric neurons, Enteric neuropathy, Neurogenetics, Severe gut dysfunction
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2504708
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