Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare disease not yet described in children with Covid-19. RANBP2 gene variations are implicated in recurrences in the genetic form of ANE, the so called ANE1. We report the first case of pediatric ANE1 following Sars-CoV-2 infection. She had a first episode at 2 years of age following influenza type A with full recovery, many other respiratory and non-respiratory febrile viral infections without recurrences and a severe recurrence following Sars-CoV-2 infection, suggesting a potentiation effect on cytokine cascade. Her MRI showed the typical pattern of injury resembling that of mitochondrial disorders, and supported the role of RANBP2 in mitochondrial homeostasis. This case rises attention on diagnostic challenges and offers several interesting tips for discussion about new perspectives in pathogenesis and targeted treatments.
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