Soft markers are sonographic structural, nonspecific signs with little pathological significance, often transient, usually considered as normal variants. However, they may also be associated with chromosomal abnormalities. The most widely examined soft markers include absent or hypoplastic nasal bone (NB), intracardiac echogenic focus (IEF), ventriculomegaly (VM), thickened nuchal fold (NF), choroid plexus cyst (CPC), echogenic bowel, short long bones, and urinary tract dilation (UTD). Although the use of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been spreading quickly in maternal–fetal medicine, it is not a diagnostic test and it still remains unavailable or cost-prohibitive for most of the population in many countries. After normal screening test results in the first trimester, there is no uniform consensus regarding the clinical significance of isolated soft markers for aneuploidy. Nowadays, the search for soft markers in an ultrasound is still part of clinical evaluation, and the interpretation of these findings is often a matter of debate. In the present review, we summarize the recent literature about the role of soft markers in the era of NIPT and propose an overview of the different clinical guidelines.

Role of Sonographic Second Trimester Soft Markers in the Era of Cell-Free DNA Screening Options: A Review

Cristina Taliento
Primo
;
Pantaleo Greco
Penultimo
;
Danila Morano
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Soft markers are sonographic structural, nonspecific signs with little pathological significance, often transient, usually considered as normal variants. However, they may also be associated with chromosomal abnormalities. The most widely examined soft markers include absent or hypoplastic nasal bone (NB), intracardiac echogenic focus (IEF), ventriculomegaly (VM), thickened nuchal fold (NF), choroid plexus cyst (CPC), echogenic bowel, short long bones, and urinary tract dilation (UTD). Although the use of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been spreading quickly in maternal–fetal medicine, it is not a diagnostic test and it still remains unavailable or cost-prohibitive for most of the population in many countries. After normal screening test results in the first trimester, there is no uniform consensus regarding the clinical significance of isolated soft markers for aneuploidy. Nowadays, the search for soft markers in an ultrasound is still part of clinical evaluation, and the interpretation of these findings is often a matter of debate. In the present review, we summarize the recent literature about the role of soft markers in the era of NIPT and propose an overview of the different clinical guidelines.
2022
Taliento, Cristina; Salmeri, Noemi; Greco, Pantaleo; Morano, Danila
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2501367
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