This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies for pain relief in women during contrast-enhanced ultrasound for the assessment of tubal patency and uterine disease, compared with placebo or no intervention. In December 2021, we searched the electronic databases (Pubmed, Embase, Sciencedirect, the Cochrane library and Clinicaltrials.gov) without date restriction: We identified 10 randomized control trials (RCTs) (2098 women) eligible for this systematic review, after applying our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among these, five studies compared the use of painkillers with the placebo, two studies compared different catheter positions in the cervix or in the uterine cavity, and two others considered different temperatures of the contrast medium, as a method to reduce pain. Topical lidocaine applied before the procedure may be associated with effective pain relief during hysterosonography, though the quality of this evidence is low. New echogenic contrast agents and their temperature at 37 ◦C ensure a less painful procedure. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the efficacy of other analgesics or strategies.
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