Background: Hematoma expansion (HE) is an appealing therapeutic target in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) features are promising predictors of HE. Aims: We investigated whether onset-to-CT time influences the diagnostic performance of NCCT markers for HE. Methods: Retrospective multicentre analysis of patients with primary ICH. The following NCCT markers were analyzed: hypodensities, heterogeneous density, blend sign, and irregular shape. HE was defined as growth > 6 mL and/or > 33%. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) of NCCT markers for HE, stratified by onset-to-CT time (<2 h, 2-4 h, 4-6 h, >6 h). Results: We included 1135 patients (median age 69, 53% males), of whom 307 (27%) experienced HE. Overall hypodensities had the highest sensitivity (0.68) and blend sign the highest specificity (0.87) for HE. Hypodensities were more common and had higher sensitivity (0.80) in patients with imaging within 2 h. The same result was observed for heterogeneous density, whereas irregular shape had a similar prevalence across time strata and higher sensitivity (0.79) beyond 6 h from onset. The frequency of blend sign increased with longer onset-to-CT time, whereas its specificity declined after 6 h from onset. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of NCCT markers is influenced by imaging time. Hypodensities identified four out of five patients with HE within 2 h from onset, whereas irregular shape performed better in late presenters. Our findings may improve the use of NCCT markers in future studies and trials targeting HE.

Non-contrast CT markers of intracerebral hemorrhage expansion: The influence of onset-to-CT time

Brancaleoni, Laura;Laudisi, Michele;Cavallini, Anna;Casetta, Ilaria;Fainardi, Enrico;
2023

Abstract

Background: Hematoma expansion (HE) is an appealing therapeutic target in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) features are promising predictors of HE. Aims: We investigated whether onset-to-CT time influences the diagnostic performance of NCCT markers for HE. Methods: Retrospective multicentre analysis of patients with primary ICH. The following NCCT markers were analyzed: hypodensities, heterogeneous density, blend sign, and irregular shape. HE was defined as growth > 6 mL and/or > 33%. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPVs and NPVs) of NCCT markers for HE, stratified by onset-to-CT time (<2 h, 2-4 h, 4-6 h, >6 h). Results: We included 1135 patients (median age 69, 53% males), of whom 307 (27%) experienced HE. Overall hypodensities had the highest sensitivity (0.68) and blend sign the highest specificity (0.87) for HE. Hypodensities were more common and had higher sensitivity (0.80) in patients with imaging within 2 h. The same result was observed for heterogeneous density, whereas irregular shape had a similar prevalence across time strata and higher sensitivity (0.79) beyond 6 h from onset. The frequency of blend sign increased with longer onset-to-CT time, whereas its specificity declined after 6 h from onset. Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of NCCT markers is influenced by imaging time. Hypodensities identified four out of five patients with HE within 2 h from onset, whereas irregular shape performed better in late presenters. Our findings may improve the use of NCCT markers in future studies and trials targeting HE.
2023
Morotti, Andrea; Li, Qi; Mazzoleni, Valentina; Nawabi, Jawed; Schlunk, Frieder; Mazzacane, Federico; Busto, Giorgio; Scola, Elisa; Brancaleoni, Laura; Giacomozzi, Sebastiano; Simonetti, Luigi; Laudisi, Michele; Cavallini, Anna; Zini, Andrea; Casetta, Ilaria; Fainardi, Enrico; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Padovani, Alessandro; Arba, Francesco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2501033
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