Nowadays, the use of hardware accelerators to boost the performance of HPC applications is a consolidated practice, and among others, GPUs are by far the most widespread. More recently, some data centers have successfully deployed also FPGA accelerated systems, especially to boost machine learning inference algorithms. Given the growing use of machine learning methods in various computational fields, and the increasing interest towards reconfigurable architectures, we may expect that in the near future FPGA based accelerators will be more common in HPC systems, and that they could be exploited also to accelerate general purpose HPC workloads. In view of this, tools able to benchmark FPGAs in the context of HPC are necessary for code developers to estimate the performance of applications, as well as for computer architects to model that of systems at scale. To fulfill these needs, we have developed FER (FPGA Empirical Roofline), a benchmarking tool able to empirically measure the computing performance of FPGA based accelerators, as well as the bandwidth of their on-chip and off-chip memories. FER measurements enable to draw Roofline plots for FPGAs, allowing for performance comparisons with other processors, such as CPUs and GPUs, and to estimate at the same time the performance upper-bounds that applications could achieve on a target device. In this paper we describe the theoretical model on which FER relies, its implementation details, and the results measured on Xilinx Alveo accelerator cards.

FER: A Benchmark for the Roofline Analysis of FPGA Based HPC Accelerators

Calore E.
Primo
;
Schifano S. F.
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Nowadays, the use of hardware accelerators to boost the performance of HPC applications is a consolidated practice, and among others, GPUs are by far the most widespread. More recently, some data centers have successfully deployed also FPGA accelerated systems, especially to boost machine learning inference algorithms. Given the growing use of machine learning methods in various computational fields, and the increasing interest towards reconfigurable architectures, we may expect that in the near future FPGA based accelerators will be more common in HPC systems, and that they could be exploited also to accelerate general purpose HPC workloads. In view of this, tools able to benchmark FPGAs in the context of HPC are necessary for code developers to estimate the performance of applications, as well as for computer architects to model that of systems at scale. To fulfill these needs, we have developed FER (FPGA Empirical Roofline), a benchmarking tool able to empirically measure the computing performance of FPGA based accelerators, as well as the bandwidth of their on-chip and off-chip memories. FER measurements enable to draw Roofline plots for FPGAs, allowing for performance comparisons with other processors, such as CPUs and GPUs, and to estimate at the same time the performance upper-bounds that applications could achieve on a target device. In this paper we describe the theoretical model on which FER relies, its implementation details, and the results measured on Xilinx Alveo accelerator cards.
2022
Calore, E.; Schifano, S. F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2500795
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