It is now established that sex differences occur in clinical manifestation, disease progression, and prognosis for both cardiovascular (CVDs) and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. As such, a great deal of effort is now being put into understanding these differences and turning them into "advantages": (a) for the discovery of new sex-specific biomarkers and (b) through a review of old biomarkers from the perspective of the "newly" discovered sex/gender medicine. This is also true for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which play a role in both CVDs and CNS disorders. However, most of the studies conducted up to now relegated sex to a mere confounding variable used for statistical model correction rather than a determining factor that can influence MMP levels and, in turn, disease prognosis. Consistently, this approach causes a loss of information that might help clinicians in identifying novel patterns and improve the applicability of MMPs in clinical practice by providing sex-specific threshold values. In this scenario, the current review aims to gather the available knowledge on sex-related differences in MMPs levels in CVDs and CNS conditions, hoping to shed light on their use as sex-specific biomarkers of disease prognosis or progression.

Sex-Related Differences of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs): New Perspectives for These Biomarkers in Cardiovascular and Neurological Diseases

Trentini, Alessandro
Co-primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Manfrinato, Maria Cristina
Co-primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Castellazzi, Massimiliano
Penultimo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Bellini, Tiziana
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2022

Abstract

It is now established that sex differences occur in clinical manifestation, disease progression, and prognosis for both cardiovascular (CVDs) and central nervous system (CNS) disorders. As such, a great deal of effort is now being put into understanding these differences and turning them into "advantages": (a) for the discovery of new sex-specific biomarkers and (b) through a review of old biomarkers from the perspective of the "newly" discovered sex/gender medicine. This is also true for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling, which play a role in both CVDs and CNS disorders. However, most of the studies conducted up to now relegated sex to a mere confounding variable used for statistical model correction rather than a determining factor that can influence MMP levels and, in turn, disease prognosis. Consistently, this approach causes a loss of information that might help clinicians in identifying novel patterns and improve the applicability of MMPs in clinical practice by providing sex-specific threshold values. In this scenario, the current review aims to gather the available knowledge on sex-related differences in MMPs levels in CVDs and CNS conditions, hoping to shed light on their use as sex-specific biomarkers of disease prognosis or progression.
2022
Trentini, Alessandro; Manfrinato, Maria Cristina; Castellazzi, Massimiliano; Bellini, Tiziana
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2494712
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