We present the discovery of the very energetic GRB 210905A at the high redshift z=6.312 and its luminous X-ray and optical afterglow. We obtained photometric and spectroscopic follow-up in the optical and near-infrared (NIR), covering both the prompt and afterglow emission from a few minutes up to 7.5 Ms after burst. With an isotropic gamma-ray energy of Eiso=1.27x10^54erg, GRB 210905A lies in the top ~7% GRBs in terms of energy released. Its afterglow is among the most luminous ever observed and, in particular, it is one of the most luminous in the optical at t<0.5 d, in the rest frame. The afterglow starts with a shallow evolution that can be explained by energy injection, and is followed by a steeper decay, while the spectral energy distribution is in agreement with slow cooling in a constant-density environment within the standard fireball theory. A jet break at 39+-21 d has been observed in the X-ray light curve; however, it is hidden in the H-band, potentially due to a constant contribution from an unknown component, most likely a foreground intervening galaxy and/or the host galaxy. We derived a half-opening angle of 7.9+-1.6 degrees, the highest ever measured for a z>~6 burst but within the range covered by closer events. The resulting collimation-corrected gamma-ray energy of 10^52erg is also among the highest ever measured. The moderately large half-opening angle argues against recent claims of an inverse dependence of the half-opening angle on the redshift. The total jet energy is likely too large for a standard magnetar, and suggests that the central engine of this burst was a newly formed black hole. Despite the outstanding energetics and luminosity of both GRB 210905A and its afterglow, we demonstrate that they are consistent within 2swith those of less distant bursts, indicating that the powering mechanisms and progenitors do not evolve significantly with redshift.

A blast from the infant Universe: the very high-z GRB 210905A

E. Pian;F. Frontera;C. Guidorzi;
2022

Abstract

We present the discovery of the very energetic GRB 210905A at the high redshift z=6.312 and its luminous X-ray and optical afterglow. We obtained photometric and spectroscopic follow-up in the optical and near-infrared (NIR), covering both the prompt and afterglow emission from a few minutes up to 7.5 Ms after burst. With an isotropic gamma-ray energy of Eiso=1.27x10^54erg, GRB 210905A lies in the top ~7% GRBs in terms of energy released. Its afterglow is among the most luminous ever observed and, in particular, it is one of the most luminous in the optical at t<0.5 d, in the rest frame. The afterglow starts with a shallow evolution that can be explained by energy injection, and is followed by a steeper decay, while the spectral energy distribution is in agreement with slow cooling in a constant-density environment within the standard fireball theory. A jet break at 39+-21 d has been observed in the X-ray light curve; however, it is hidden in the H-band, potentially due to a constant contribution from an unknown component, most likely a foreground intervening galaxy and/or the host galaxy. We derived a half-opening angle of 7.9+-1.6 degrees, the highest ever measured for a z>~6 burst but within the range covered by closer events. The resulting collimation-corrected gamma-ray energy of 10^52erg is also among the highest ever measured. The moderately large half-opening angle argues against recent claims of an inverse dependence of the half-opening angle on the redshift. The total jet energy is likely too large for a standard magnetar, and suggests that the central engine of this burst was a newly formed black hole. Despite the outstanding energetics and luminosity of both GRB 210905A and its afterglow, we demonstrate that they are consistent within 2swith those of less distant bursts, indicating that the powering mechanisms and progenitors do not evolve significantly with redshift.
2022
Rossi, A.; Frederiks, D. D.; Kann, D. A.; De Pasquale, M.; Pian, E.; D'Avanzo, P.; Izzo, L.; Lamb, G.; Malesani, D. B.; Melandri, A.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Schulze, S.; Strausbaugh, R.; Amati, L.; Campana, S.; Cucchiara, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Della Valle, M.; Klose, S.; Salvaterra, R.; Starling, R.; Stratta, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Vergani, S. D.; D'Ai, A.; Burgarella, D.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fausey, H.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Frontera, F.; Guidorzi, C.; Heintz, K. E.; Masetti, N.; Maiorano, E.; Mundell, C. G.; Oates, S. R.; Page, M. J.; Palazzi, E.; Palmerio, J.; Pugliese, G.; Rau, A.; Saccardi, A.; Sbarufatti, B.; Svinkin, D. S.; Tagliaferri, G.; van der Horst, A. J.; Watson, D.; Ulanov, M. V.; Wiersema, K.; Xu, D.; Zhang, J.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2494700
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