Background: Glucose metabolism derangements (GMD) and thyroid nodules (TNs) are the most frequent endocrine disorders, and their relationship is still controversial; little evidence is reported regarding sex differences. We aim to evaluate the association between GMDs and TNs according to sex and the sex differences in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity (IS). (2) Methods: We evaluated 342 patients (268 females and 74 males) at high GMD risk undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test and a thyroid ultrasound. (3) Results: The TN prevalence was 61% (n = 210), with no significant differences according to sex and GMD classes. The TN presence is significantly associated with age and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in females. Males and females with normal fasting glucose (NFG) had a significantly lower OR of having TNs than females with IFG. IFG females had a significantly higher predicted probability of having TNs than NFG males and females but not IFG males. Impaired glucose tolerance/Type 2 diabetes mellitus (IGT/T2DM) is significantly associated with age and male sex, while IFG is associated with age. Females had significantly lower HOMA-index values than males. (4) Conclusions: No significant association between IGT/T2DM and TNs according to sex was found. IFG seems to play a role in TN development independently of sex. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between TNs and GMD to identify subgroups with a higher TN risk.

Glucose Metabolism Derangements and Thyroid Nodules: Does Sex Matter?

Irene Gagliardi;Paola Franceschetti;Sabrina Lupo;Martina Rossi;Marta Bondanelli;Maria Rosaria Ambrosio
Penultimo
;
Maria Chiara Zatelli
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Background: Glucose metabolism derangements (GMD) and thyroid nodules (TNs) are the most frequent endocrine disorders, and their relationship is still controversial; little evidence is reported regarding sex differences. We aim to evaluate the association between GMDs and TNs according to sex and the sex differences in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity (IS). (2) Methods: We evaluated 342 patients (268 females and 74 males) at high GMD risk undergoing an oral glucose tolerance test and a thyroid ultrasound. (3) Results: The TN prevalence was 61% (n = 210), with no significant differences according to sex and GMD classes. The TN presence is significantly associated with age and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in females. Males and females with normal fasting glucose (NFG) had a significantly lower OR of having TNs than females with IFG. IFG females had a significantly higher predicted probability of having TNs than NFG males and females but not IFG males. Impaired glucose tolerance/Type 2 diabetes mellitus (IGT/T2DM) is significantly associated with age and male sex, while IFG is associated with age. Females had significantly lower HOMA-index values than males. (4) Conclusions: No significant association between IGT/T2DM and TNs according to sex was found. IFG seems to play a role in TN development independently of sex. Further studies are needed to explore the relationship between TNs and GMD to identify subgroups with a higher TN risk.
Gobbo, Alberto; Gagliardi, Irene; Gobbo, Andrea; Rossi, Roberta; Franceschetti, Paola; Lupo, Sabrina; Rossi, Martina; Bondanelli, Marta; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Zatelli, Maria Chiara
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2488897
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