Questa tesi di dottorato analizza le modalità di fabbricazione delle armature litiche durante il Tardoglaciale e l’inizio del primo Olocene in due aree specifiche: l’Italia nord-orientale e la Francia sud-occidentale. Fin dai primi studi della fine del XIX e l’inizio del XX secolo, la variabilità tipologica delle armature litiche dopo il Gravettiano ha permesso di stabilire una divisione culturale tra le regioni atlantico-occidentali e quelle mediterraneo-balcaniche. La prima ha visto il susseguirsi di diverse culture (Solutreano, Badegouliano, Maddaleniano, Aziliano e Laboriano), mentre la seconda è caratterizzata da una maggiore continuità culturale che ha portato allo sviluppo dell’Epigravettiano antico e recente. All’inizio dell’Olocene entrambe le aree studiate presentano evidenze riferibili al Sauveterriano. L’obiettivo di questo progetto di ricerca è di contribuire alla definizione del quadro culturale di queste due regioni è di verificare se a questa chiara diversità morfo-tipologica corrisponde una differenza nelle modalità di produzione e in particolare nella selezione dei supporti e nei metodi e nelle tecniche di ritocco. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo sono state analizzate le armature di due siti della Francia sud-occidentale e di quattro dell’Italia nord-orientale. Per l’area italiana sono stati selezionati siti dell’Epigravettiano recente e del Sauveterriano localizzati in Friuli e nelle Prealpi e Alpi venete datati tra la fine del Dryas antico (GS-2a) e l’inizio dell’Olocene (17.000-10.000 cal BP). Per quanto riguarda l’area francese, invece, abbiamo scelto due siti pluristratificati che coprono approssimativamente lo stesso arco cronologico di quelli italiani e si riferiscono al Magdaleniano superiore, all’Aziliano antico e recente e al Laboriano antico. Non è stato possibile analizzare armature riferibili al Laboriano recente e al Sauveterriano francese. Le armature sono state studiate tramite una metodologia appositamente elaborata. Quest’ultima si basa su due approcci complementari, uno sperimentale e uno tecnologico. Entrambi mirano a ricostruire l’insieme delle catene operative che portano alla produzione delle armature. Sono state realizzate tre principali sessioni sperimentali: la prima dedicata alle tecniche di ritocco, la seconda alla tecnica del microbulino e la terza all’identificazione di altre tecniche utili ad ottenere una fratturazione controllata del supporto. In seguito, il campione sperimentale è stato esaminato combinando un’analisi a basso e alto ingrandimento e un analisi quantitativa. Si è quindi elaborato un approccio integrato spesso utilizzato nell’ambito dell’analisi funzionale, ma raramente applicato per la ricostruzione delle modalità di fabbricazione di strumenti litici. L’applicazione di questa metodologia ha permesso di osservare la variabilità delle armature sotto una nuova luce. I risultati delle analisi effettuate indicano che nonostante le notevoli differenze da un punto di vista morfo-funzionale tra le armature delle due aree prese in esame, molteplici sono i punti in comune. Questi riguardano soprattutto le modalità di selezione dei supporti, i metodi e le tecniche di ritocco, che in diversi periodi del Tardoglaciale sembrano seguire un evoluzione simile. Sebbene i motivi di queste affinità tecnologiche potrebbero essere ricondotti alle dinamiche climatico-ambientali che colpiscono entrambe le regioni durante il Tardoglaciale e l’inizio dell’Olocene, la presenza degli stessi comportamenti tecnici su ampia scala non può che essere il risultato di un’importante rete di connessioni tra i gruppi umani delle regioni atlantico-occidentali e quelle mediterraneo-balcaniche.

This Ph.D thesis focuses on manufacturing modalities of lithic armatures during the Late Glacial and the first part of the Early Holocene in two specific areas: North-Eastern Italy and South-Western France. Since the earliest studies between the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the typological variability of lithic armatures and other specific traits in lithic and osseous technology have allowed establishing a cultural separation between the Western-Atlantic and Mediterranean-Balkan regions after the Gravettian period. According to the latest studies the former is characterized by the Solutrean-Badegoulian-Magdalenian-Azilian-Laborian sequence, whereas the second one attests to the development of the Early and the Late Epigravettian. Both regions analysed are then characterized by evidence referring to the Sauveterrian. The aim of this project was to contribute to the definition of the cultural framework in these two regions and to verify if this clear typological specificity corresponds to a difference in production modalities, especially on manufacturing methods and retouch techniques. To answer this question, armatures from six sites located in South-Western France and North-Eastern Italy have been analysed. For the Italian area we selected Late Epigravettian and Sauveterrian sites from Friuli and the Venetian Pre-Alps and Alps spanning from the latest part of the Oldest Dryas (GS-2a) to the beginning of the Early Holocene (17.000-10.000 cal BP). For the French area we choose two multi-layered sites covering approximately the same chronological span of the Italian ones and referred to the Upper Magdalenian, Early and Late Azilian and Early Laborian. Any Late Laborian and Sauveterrian French sites have been analysed. Armatures were examined by applying a specifically designed methodology. This is based on two complementary approaches, an experimental and a technological one. Both were aimed at reconstructing the whole chaîne opératoire of armatures manufacture. Three main experimental sessions were carried out: the 1st experimentation was dedicated to the investigation of retouch techniques, the 2nd one was aimed at examining the microburin blow technique and the 3rd was focused on other fracturing techniques effective to achieve a controlled fracture. The experimental sample was then analysed by combining a low and high magnifications analysis and a quantitative approach creating a new protocol for the study of lithic backed armatures. Such a combined approach is often used in use-wear analysis but has rarely been applied to the production of lithic artefacts. Applying this type of analysis at a large scale allowed observing the variability of Late Glacial armatures in a new light. Despite the considerable morpho-functional divergences among armatures from the two territories analysed, common transformations concerning blanks selection and both retouch methods and techniques were recorded. Although the reason to such a trend can be research into the similar environmental transformations occurred in both areas along the Late Glacial and the beginning of the Early Holocene which may similarly affect different human groups, the occurrence of analogous technical practise over a large territory suggests the presence of important social networks linking Eastern and Western societies across time.

Lithic armatures manufacture during the Late Glacial and the beginning of the Early Holocene between North-Eastern Italy and South-Western France: production methods and techniques

FASSER, NICOLÒ
2022-05-30T00:00:00+02:00

Abstract

This Ph.D thesis focuses on manufacturing modalities of lithic armatures during the Late Glacial and the first part of the Early Holocene in two specific areas: North-Eastern Italy and South-Western France. Since the earliest studies between the end of 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, the typological variability of lithic armatures and other specific traits in lithic and osseous technology have allowed establishing a cultural separation between the Western-Atlantic and Mediterranean-Balkan regions after the Gravettian period. According to the latest studies the former is characterized by the Solutrean-Badegoulian-Magdalenian-Azilian-Laborian sequence, whereas the second one attests to the development of the Early and the Late Epigravettian. Both regions analysed are then characterized by evidence referring to the Sauveterrian. The aim of this project was to contribute to the definition of the cultural framework in these two regions and to verify if this clear typological specificity corresponds to a difference in production modalities, especially on manufacturing methods and retouch techniques. To answer this question, armatures from six sites located in South-Western France and North-Eastern Italy have been analysed. For the Italian area we selected Late Epigravettian and Sauveterrian sites from Friuli and the Venetian Pre-Alps and Alps spanning from the latest part of the Oldest Dryas (GS-2a) to the beginning of the Early Holocene (17.000-10.000 cal BP). For the French area we choose two multi-layered sites covering approximately the same chronological span of the Italian ones and referred to the Upper Magdalenian, Early and Late Azilian and Early Laborian. Any Late Laborian and Sauveterrian French sites have been analysed. Armatures were examined by applying a specifically designed methodology. This is based on two complementary approaches, an experimental and a technological one. Both were aimed at reconstructing the whole chaîne opératoire of armatures manufacture. Three main experimental sessions were carried out: the 1st experimentation was dedicated to the investigation of retouch techniques, the 2nd one was aimed at examining the microburin blow technique and the 3rd was focused on other fracturing techniques effective to achieve a controlled fracture. The experimental sample was then analysed by combining a low and high magnifications analysis and a quantitative approach creating a new protocol for the study of lithic backed armatures. Such a combined approach is often used in use-wear analysis but has rarely been applied to the production of lithic artefacts. Applying this type of analysis at a large scale allowed observing the variability of Late Glacial armatures in a new light. Despite the considerable morpho-functional divergences among armatures from the two territories analysed, common transformations concerning blanks selection and both retouch methods and techniques were recorded. Although the reason to such a trend can be research into the similar environmental transformations occurred in both areas along the Late Glacial and the beginning of the Early Holocene which may similarly affect different human groups, the occurrence of analogous technical practise over a large territory suggests the presence of important social networks linking Eastern and Western societies across time.
FONTANA, Federica
PERESANI, Marco
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Phd_Nicol?_Fasser_IUSS online PDFA.pdf

embargo fino al 30/05/2023

Descrizione: Tesi Nicolo_Fasser
Tipologia: Tesi di dottorato
Dimensione 28.89 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
28.89 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11392/2488461
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact