L'obiettivo generale di questa tesi è di utilizzare un approccio archeozoologico per avanzare, capire i cambiamenti che la colonizzazione romana della Tunisia ha causato negli animali. pratiche di allevamento, schemi dietetici e commercio di animali. Per raggiungere questo obiettivo, abbiamo intrapreso uno studio comparativo degli assemblaggi di fauna. Abbiamo analizzato i resti di fauna di Ghizen e Zama e i risultati sono stati contestualizzati con tutte le informazioni archeozoologiche disponibili dalla Tunisia. Abbiamo sviluppato una metodologia specifica per confrontare i dati sulla fauna pubblicati. Le analisi si sono concentrate sulla quantificazione tassonomica delle principali specie domestiche. (bovini, ovini, caprini e suini) per stabilire l'importanza economica di ciascun taxon. Sono stati esaminati elementi scheletrici per determinare gli effetti dell'alterazione taphonomica e umana in ogni assemblea. Si stima che l'età alla morte faccia luce sull'uso e lo sfruttamento degli animali. I nostri risultati forniscono una migliore comprensione dei cambiamenti nelle pratiche di allevamento, dieta della carne e commercio di animali in Tunisia dall'età del ferro al periodo romano. Abbiamo documentato che durante il periodo romano la zootecnia era più specializzata. Più in particolare, l'importanza economica di pecore e maiali è aumentata: i primi sono stati ampiamente sfruttati per la loro lana, mentre i secondi sono diventati un'importante fonte di carne. Allo stesso tempo, specie come il gatto, il ratto nero, il topo domestico, il coniglio, la lepre e il daino furono introdotti in Tunisia durante il periodo romano, dimostrando che gli animali erano un altro prodotto commercializzato nei porti del nord dell'Africa. Il commercio di animali è stata un'importante attività economica per la Tunisia, non solo per l'esportazione di animali selvatici, ma anche per l'importazione di animali selvatici e domestici. Anche la dieta a base di carne fu modificata, in particolare nelle province settentrionali della Tunisia, dove vi fu un aumento del consumo di carne di maiale. Pertanto, proponiamo che la carne dietetica Il modello documentato in Tunisia durante il periodo romano sia stato influenzato non solo da fattori culturali, ma anche da fattori economici e forse ambientali, tutti collegati tra loro.

The broad aim of this thesis is to use an archeozoological approach to further understand the changes that the Roman colonization of Tunisia brought about in animal husbandry practices, diet patterns and the animal trade. To achieve this aim, we have undertaken a comparative study of faunal assemblages. We have analyzed the faunal remains from Ghizen and Zama, and the results have been contextualized with all the archaeozoological information available from Tunisia. We developed a specific methodology for comparing published faunal data. Our analyses concentrated on the taxonomical quantification of the main domestic species (cattle, sheep, goat and pig) in order to establish the economic importance of each taxon. The skeletal elements were examined in order to determine the effects of taphonomic and human alteration on each assemblage. Age at death was estimated in order to shed light on animal use and exploitation. Our results provide greater insight into changes in animal husbandry practices, meat diet and animal trade in Tunisia from the Iron Age to the Roman period. We have documented that during the Roman period animal husbandry was more specialized. More specifically, the economic importance of sheep and pigs increased: the former were largely exploited for their wool while the latter became a major source of meat. At the same time, such species as cat, black rat, house mouse, rabbit, hare and fallow deer were introduced into Tunisia during the Roman period, which shows that animals were another commodity traded in North African ports. The animal trade was an important economic activity for Tunisia, not only for the exportation of wild beasts but also for the importation of wild and domestic animals. The meat diet was also modified, particularly in the northern provinces of Tunisia, where there was an increase in pork consumption. So, we propose that the meat dietary pattern documented in Tunisia during the Roman period was influenced not only by cultural factors, but also by economic and maybe environmental factors, all of which were interconnected.

Changes in animal husbandry, diet and animal trade in Tunisia from the Iron Age to the Roman period: an archeozoological approach

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2020

Abstract

The broad aim of this thesis is to use an archeozoological approach to further understand the changes that the Roman colonization of Tunisia brought about in animal husbandry practices, diet patterns and the animal trade. To achieve this aim, we have undertaken a comparative study of faunal assemblages. We have analyzed the faunal remains from Ghizen and Zama, and the results have been contextualized with all the archaeozoological information available from Tunisia. We developed a specific methodology for comparing published faunal data. Our analyses concentrated on the taxonomical quantification of the main domestic species (cattle, sheep, goat and pig) in order to establish the economic importance of each taxon. The skeletal elements were examined in order to determine the effects of taphonomic and human alteration on each assemblage. Age at death was estimated in order to shed light on animal use and exploitation. Our results provide greater insight into changes in animal husbandry practices, meat diet and animal trade in Tunisia from the Iron Age to the Roman period. We have documented that during the Roman period animal husbandry was more specialized. More specifically, the economic importance of sheep and pigs increased: the former were largely exploited for their wool while the latter became a major source of meat. At the same time, such species as cat, black rat, house mouse, rabbit, hare and fallow deer were introduced into Tunisia during the Roman period, which shows that animals were another commodity traded in North African ports. The animal trade was an important economic activity for Tunisia, not only for the exportation of wild beasts but also for the importation of wild and domestic animals. The meat diet was also modified, particularly in the northern provinces of Tunisia, where there was an increase in pork consumption. So, we propose that the meat dietary pattern documented in Tunisia during the Roman period was influenced not only by cultural factors, but also by economic and maybe environmental factors, all of which were interconnected.
AZAZA, MOHAMED
SALA RAMOS, Robert
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2488090
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