L'istmo di Panama ospita due siti iscritti alla World Heritage List, ossia il sito Archeologico di Panama Viejo (XVI sec.) e i Fortini di Portobelo e San Lorenzo (XVII-XVIII sec.). Al fine di supportare la conservazione e la valorizzazione di questi luoghi, è stato avviato un lavoro di collaborazione tra i Patronati di Panama Viejo e di Portobelo e San Lorenzo, il CNR-ISAC e il Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra dell'Università di Ferrara. In primo luogo il progetto è stato focalizzato sulla caratterizzazione dei materiali lapidei naturali costituenti le murature, compresa la valutazione del loro stato di conservazione e dei fenomeni di degrado dovuti all'impatto ambientale. In aggiunta sono state identificate possibili cave di approvvigionamento dei materiali da costruzione. Pertanto, a seguito di una campagna di campionamento, i frammenti ottenuti sono stati sottoposti ad analisi per mezzo di stereomicroscopio, XRPD, SEM-EDX, XRF, MIP e IC. Queste hanno permesso di identificare brecce poligeniche, tufiti, andesiti basaltiche, rioliti e alcune riodaciti, come materiali impiegati nelle murature dei monumenti di Panamá Viejo; mentre sono stati individuati affioramenti di brecce e andesiti basaltiche. Considerando le fortificazioni di Portobelo, calcari corallini e arenarie sono i principali materiali costituenti le strutture murarie. Andesiti basaltiche sono state rinvenute solo a Fuerte de San Fernando, dove erano presenti anche in affioramento. Infine, presso Forte San Lorenzo, i materiali da costruzione impiegati sono tufiti e grainstone, delle quali sono state individuate anche possibili cave. Prendendo in considerazione lo stato di conservazione, i fenomeni di alterazione più diffusi sono ascrivibili a crescita biologica, esfoliazione e distacchi, disgregazione, incrostazioni saline ed alterazioni cromatiche. Successivamente, al fine di determinare il contesto ambientale, sono state selezionate delle stazioni di monitoraggio, appartenenti alla rete nazionale panamense, situate nei pressi dei siti oggetto di studio, che registrassero parametri climatici quali temperatura dell’aria, umidità relativa e pioggia. Gli stessi parametri sono stati estratti anche da simulazioni storiche e scenari futuri di due modelli climatici: EC-Earth, con risoluzione di 25 km, e Arpege, con risoluzione di 50 km, comparandoli con quelli ottenuti dalle centraline. Utilizzando i dati ambientali in specifiche funzioni di danno, è stato possibile valutare diverse morfologie di degrado come la recessione superficiale, cicli di transizioni saline e accumulo di biomassa. Riguardo alla prima, è stata utilizzata la funzione di Lipfert modificata, relativa all’effetto carsico. Questa ha permesso di rilevare una maggiore recessione nelle aree di Portobelo e San Lorenzo, specialmente considerando i dati di EC-Earth, sia per la situazione passata che futura. Considerando i cicli di dissoluzione e cristallizzazione dei sali, lo studio si è incentrato sulla halite, poiché sodio e cloro sono risultati essere gli ioni più abbondanti nei campioni di tutti i siti, essendo infatti tutte aree costiere marine. In generale, paragonando le condizioni passate e future, Portobelo risulta essere il meno interessato dal fenomeno, mentre l’area in prossimità di San Lorenzo la più soggetta. Al fine di stimare l’accumulo di biomassa su rocce acide, è stata impiegata la funzione messa a punto da Gomez-Bolea et al. (2012), rivelando valori di biomassa più elevati nella costa Nord, specialmente a Portobelo. In conclusione, i risultati ottenuti hanno permesso di contribuire significativamente alla futura formulazione di linee guida e nello sviluppo delle attuali e future strategie di preservazione dei siti, rappresentando una conoscenza fondamentale per studi successivi, al fine di incrementare la consapevolezza dei possibili rischi connessi all’impatto dei cambiamenti climatici sul patrimonio culturale.

The Panamanian isthmus hosts two sites inscribed on the World Heritage List: the Archaeological site of Panama Viejo (XVI cent.) and the Fortresses of Portobelo and San Lorenzo (XVII-XVIII cent.). In order to support the conservation and valorisation of these places, in 2014 a collaboration work has been started among the Patronages of Panama Viejo and of Portobelo and San Lorenzo, the Italian CNR-ISAC and the Department of Physics and Earth Sciences of the University of Ferrara. Firstly, the project was focused on the characterization of rocks belonging to the masonries, in conjunction with the evaluation of their state of conservation and damage estimation in relation with the environmental impact. Furthermore, potential quarries of raw material supply have been identified and sampled. Therefore, after a survey and sampling campaign, specimens underwent the following analyses: stereomicroscope, PLM, XRPD, SEM-EDX, XRF, MIP and IC, highlighting at Panamá Viejo masonries mainly composed of polygenic breccias, tuffites, basaltic andesites, rhyolites and sporadic rhyodacites, while outcrops of breccias and andesites were identified. Considering Portobelo fortifications, coral limestones and sandstones have been identified as principal construction materials; while basaltic andesite has been observed only at Fuerte de San Fernando, where an outcrop of this material was present. Finally, at Fort San Lorenzo, tuffites and grainstones have been detected in the masonries and possible quarries of both have been found. Concerning the state of conservation, the most diffused deterioration phenomena are due to biological growth, exfoliation and detachment, disintegration, salt encrustations and chromatic alteration. Successively, in order to determine the environmental context, a selection of monitoring stations, recording climate parameters (near-surface air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall amount), have been chosen near the sites among national Panamanian networks. Besides, the same parameters were collected from two climate models, both from historical simulations and future scenarios: EC-Earth, 25 km of resolution, and Arpege 50 km of resolution, and compared with the monitored records. Utilizing environmental data obtained and applying specific damage functions it was possible to assess the deterioration phenomena occurring on heritage materials, as surface recession, cycles of salts transition and biomass accumulation. Considering the first one, it was utilized Lipfert function modified, related to the karst effect. The area of Portobelo and San Lorenzo showed a higher surface recession, especially considering the data extracted from EC-Earth experiment, both for the past and the future situation. In consideration of the salts cycles of dissolution and crystallization, halite has been elected as a priority phase of investigation, since sodium and chloride resulted ones of the most abundant ions in the samples, detected in all sites, also taking into account their proximity to the sea. The past situation (1979-2008) highlighted that the higher frequency of halite transition cycles is recorded during the dry season (November/December to April/ May). In general, Portobelo results the less interested by this phenomenon, while the area near San Lorenzo seems to be the most affected. In order to estimate the biomass accumulation on hard acid stones, the function developed by Gomez-Bolea et al. (2012) was applied. The highest yearly biomass values are recorded at Portobelo, both in the past and future. In conclusion, the obtained results contribute significantly to the formulation of guidelines and development of strategies for current and future preservation of the sites, and represent a fundamental knowledge for further related analysis, in order to increase the awareness of the possible risks connected with the climate change impact on Cultural Heritage.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ON UNESCO HERITAGE SITES IN PANAMA

CIANTELLI, Chiara
2017

Abstract

The Panamanian isthmus hosts two sites inscribed on the World Heritage List: the Archaeological site of Panama Viejo (XVI cent.) and the Fortresses of Portobelo and San Lorenzo (XVII-XVIII cent.). In order to support the conservation and valorisation of these places, in 2014 a collaboration work has been started among the Patronages of Panama Viejo and of Portobelo and San Lorenzo, the Italian CNR-ISAC and the Department of Physics and Earth Sciences of the University of Ferrara. Firstly, the project was focused on the characterization of rocks belonging to the masonries, in conjunction with the evaluation of their state of conservation and damage estimation in relation with the environmental impact. Furthermore, potential quarries of raw material supply have been identified and sampled. Therefore, after a survey and sampling campaign, specimens underwent the following analyses: stereomicroscope, PLM, XRPD, SEM-EDX, XRF, MIP and IC, highlighting at Panamá Viejo masonries mainly composed of polygenic breccias, tuffites, basaltic andesites, rhyolites and sporadic rhyodacites, while outcrops of breccias and andesites were identified. Considering Portobelo fortifications, coral limestones and sandstones have been identified as principal construction materials; while basaltic andesite has been observed only at Fuerte de San Fernando, where an outcrop of this material was present. Finally, at Fort San Lorenzo, tuffites and grainstones have been detected in the masonries and possible quarries of both have been found. Concerning the state of conservation, the most diffused deterioration phenomena are due to biological growth, exfoliation and detachment, disintegration, salt encrustations and chromatic alteration. Successively, in order to determine the environmental context, a selection of monitoring stations, recording climate parameters (near-surface air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall amount), have been chosen near the sites among national Panamanian networks. Besides, the same parameters were collected from two climate models, both from historical simulations and future scenarios: EC-Earth, 25 km of resolution, and Arpege 50 km of resolution, and compared with the monitored records. Utilizing environmental data obtained and applying specific damage functions it was possible to assess the deterioration phenomena occurring on heritage materials, as surface recession, cycles of salts transition and biomass accumulation. Considering the first one, it was utilized Lipfert function modified, related to the karst effect. The area of Portobelo and San Lorenzo showed a higher surface recession, especially considering the data extracted from EC-Earth experiment, both for the past and the future situation. In consideration of the salts cycles of dissolution and crystallization, halite has been elected as a priority phase of investigation, since sodium and chloride resulted ones of the most abundant ions in the samples, detected in all sites, also taking into account their proximity to the sea. The past situation (1979-2008) highlighted that the higher frequency of halite transition cycles is recorded during the dry season (November/December to April/ May). In general, Portobelo results the less interested by this phenomenon, while the area near San Lorenzo seems to be the most affected. In order to estimate the biomass accumulation on hard acid stones, the function developed by Gomez-Bolea et al. (2012) was applied. The highest yearly biomass values are recorded at Portobelo, both in the past and future. In conclusion, the obtained results contribute significantly to the formulation of guidelines and development of strategies for current and future preservation of the sites, and represent a fundamental knowledge for further related analysis, in order to increase the awareness of the possible risks connected with the climate change impact on Cultural Heritage.
VACCARO, Carmela
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