Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused in the 95% of cases by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, affecting almost exclusively females. While the genetic basis of RTT is known, the exact pathogenic mechanisms that lead to the broad spectrum of symptoms still remain enigmatic. Alterations in the redox homeostasis have been proposed among the contributing factors to the development and progression of the syndrome. Mitochondria appears to play a central role in RTT oxidative damage and a plethora of mitochondrial defects has already been recognized. However, mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, which represent critical pathways in regulating mitochondrial quality control (QC), have not yet been investigated in RTT. The present work showed that RTT fibroblasts have networks of hyperfused mitochondria with morphological abnormalities and increased mitochondrial volume. Moreover, analysis of mitophagic flux revealed an impaired PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial removal associated with an increase of mitochondrial fusion proteins Mitofusins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and 2) and a decrease of fission mediators including Dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) and Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (FIS1). Finally, challenging RTT fibroblasts with FCCP and 2,4-DNP did not trigger a proper apoptotic cell death due to a defective caspase 3/7 activation. Altogether, our findings shed light on new aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in RTT that are represented by defective mitochondrial QC pathways, also providing new potential targets for a therapeutic intervention aimed at slowing down clinical course and manifestations in the affected patients.

Impaired mitochondrial quality control in Rett Syndrome

Crivellari I.;Pecorelli A.;Cordone V.;Pinton P.;Cervellati C.;Valacchi G.
2021

Abstract

Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused in the 95% of cases by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene, affecting almost exclusively females. While the genetic basis of RTT is known, the exact pathogenic mechanisms that lead to the broad spectrum of symptoms still remain enigmatic. Alterations in the redox homeostasis have been proposed among the contributing factors to the development and progression of the syndrome. Mitochondria appears to play a central role in RTT oxidative damage and a plethora of mitochondrial defects has already been recognized. However, mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, which represent critical pathways in regulating mitochondrial quality control (QC), have not yet been investigated in RTT. The present work showed that RTT fibroblasts have networks of hyperfused mitochondria with morphological abnormalities and increased mitochondrial volume. Moreover, analysis of mitophagic flux revealed an impaired PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitochondrial removal associated with an increase of mitochondrial fusion proteins Mitofusins 1 and 2 (MFN1 and 2) and a decrease of fission mediators including Dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) and Mitochondrial fission 1 protein (FIS1). Finally, challenging RTT fibroblasts with FCCP and 2,4-DNP did not trigger a proper apoptotic cell death due to a defective caspase 3/7 activation. Altogether, our findings shed light on new aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in RTT that are represented by defective mitochondrial QC pathways, also providing new potential targets for a therapeutic intervention aimed at slowing down clinical course and manifestations in the affected patients.
Crivellari, I.; Pecorelli, A.; Cordone, V.; Marchi, S.; Pinton, P.; Hayek, J.; Cervellati, C.; Valacchi, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11392/2477739
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