This study compiles data to determine if procalcitonin (PCT) values may predict both the risk of bacterial infection and potentially negative long-term outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). All patients with a diagnosis of ACS that had PCT levels assessed during the first 24 h of hospitalization were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome was to detect the presence of bacterial infection defined as the occurrence of fever and at least one positive blood or urinary culture with clinical signs of infection. The secondary outcome was to monitor the occurrence after 1 year of the composite outcome of all-cause mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction. Overall, 569 patients were enrolled (mean age 69.37 ± 14 years, 30% females). Of these, 44 (8%) met the criteria for bacterial infection. After multivariate analysis, PCT and SBP were found to be independent predictors of bacterial infections (OR for PCT above the cut-off 2.67, 95% CI 1.09–6.53, p = 0.032 and OR for SBP 0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.99, p = 0.043). After 1 year, the composite outcome of all-cause death, MI and stroke occurred in 104 patients (18%). PCT was not found to be an independent predictor of these outcomes. In conclusion, when assessing ACS, we found that testing for PCT levels during hospital admissions procedures was a good predictor of bacterial infections but not of all-cause mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Clinicaltrial.org identifier: NCT02438085.
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