Mitochondria are key regulators of cell survival and are involved in a plethora of mechanisms, such as metabolism, Ca2+ signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitophagy and mitochondrial transfer, fusion, and fission (known as mitochondrial dynamics). The tuning of these processes in pathophysiological conditions is fundamental to the balance between cell death and survival. Indeed, ROS overproduction and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload are linked to the induction of apoptosis, while the impairment of mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism can have a double-faceted role in the decision between cell survival and death. Tumorigenesis involves an intricate series of cellular impairments not yet completely clarified, and a further level of complexity is added by the onset of apoptosis resistance mechanisms in cancer cells. In the majority of cases, cancer relapse or lack of responsiveness is related to the emergence of chemoresistance, which may be due to the cooperation of several cellular protection mechanisms, often mitochondria-related. With this review, we aim to critically report the current evidence on the relationship between mitochondria and cancer chemoresistance with a particular focus on the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, oxidative stress, and metabolism to possibly identify new approaches or targets for overcoming cancer resistance.

Mitochondria: Insights into Crucial Features to Overcome Cancer Chemoresistance

Genovese I
Primo
;
Carinci M
Secondo
;
Modesti L;Aguiari G;Pinton P
Penultimo
;
Giorgi C.
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Mitochondria are key regulators of cell survival and are involved in a plethora of mechanisms, such as metabolism, Ca2+ signaling, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitophagy and mitochondrial transfer, fusion, and fission (known as mitochondrial dynamics). The tuning of these processes in pathophysiological conditions is fundamental to the balance between cell death and survival. Indeed, ROS overproduction and mitochondrial Ca2+ overload are linked to the induction of apoptosis, while the impairment of mitochondrial dynamics and metabolism can have a double-faceted role in the decision between cell survival and death. Tumorigenesis involves an intricate series of cellular impairments not yet completely clarified, and a further level of complexity is added by the onset of apoptosis resistance mechanisms in cancer cells. In the majority of cases, cancer relapse or lack of responsiveness is related to the emergence of chemoresistance, which may be due to the cooperation of several cellular protection mechanisms, often mitochondria-related. With this review, we aim to critically report the current evidence on the relationship between mitochondria and cancer chemoresistance with a particular focus on the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling, oxidative stress, and metabolism to possibly identify new approaches or targets for overcoming cancer resistance.
2021
Genovese, I; Carinci, M; Modesti, L; Aguiari, G; Pinton, P; Giorgi, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2471723
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