Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in many adult tissues. MSCs can regenerate through cell division or differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. As a result, MSCs have become an important source of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for bone tissue and cartilage. Several epigenetic factors are believed to play a role in MSCs differentiation. Among these, microRNA (miRNA) regulation is involved in the fine modulation of gene expression during osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation. It has been reported that miRNAs are involved in bone homeostasis by modulating osteoblast gene expression. In addition, countless evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs dysregulation is involved in the development of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The deregulation of miRNAs expression has also been associated with several malignancies including bone cancer. In this context, bone-associated circulating miRNAs may be useful biomarkers for determining the predisposition, onset and development of osteoporosis, as well as in clinical applications to improve the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of cancer and metastases. Overall, this review will provide an overview of how miRNAs activities participate in osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation, while addressing the role of miRNA regulatory effects on target genes. Finally, the role of miRNAs in pathologies and therapies will be presented.

The role of microRNAs in the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and bone pathologies

Maria Rosa Iaquinta
Co-primo
;
Carmen Lanzillotti
Co-primo
;
Chiara Mazziotta
Co-primo
;
Ilaria Bononi;Francesca Frontini;Elisa Mazzoni;Lucia Oton-Gonzalez;John Charles Rotondo;Elena Torreggiani;Mauro Tognon
Penultimo
;
Fernanda Martini
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified in many adult tissues. MSCs can regenerate through cell division or differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondrocytes. As a result, MSCs have become an important source of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine for bone tissue and cartilage. Several epigenetic factors are believed to play a role in MSCs differentiation. Among these, microRNA (miRNA) regulation is involved in the fine modulation of gene expression during osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation. It has been reported that miRNAs are involved in bone homeostasis by modulating osteoblast gene expression. In addition, countless evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs dysregulation is involved in the development of osteoporosis and bone fractures. The deregulation of miRNAs expression has also been associated with several malignancies including bone cancer. In this context, bone-associated circulating miRNAs may be useful biomarkers for determining the predisposition, onset and development of osteoporosis, as well as in clinical applications to improve the diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of cancer and metastases. Overall, this review will provide an overview of how miRNAs activities participate in osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation, while addressing the role of miRNA regulatory effects on target genes. Finally, the role of miRNAs in pathologies and therapies will be presented.
2021
Iaquinta, Maria Rosa; Lanzillotti, Carmen; Mazziotta, Chiara; Bononi, Ilaria; Frontini, Francesca; Mazzoni, Elisa; OTON GONZALEZ, Lucia; Rotondo, John Charles; Torreggiani, Elena; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2461828
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