BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis display enhanced blood levels of factor VIII, which may result in harmful activation of the clotting system; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in patients with cirrhosis (n=61) and matched controls (n=61) comparing blood levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWf), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA. Furthermore, we performed an in vitro study to investigate if LPS, in a concentration range similar to that found in the peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients, was able to elicit factor VIII secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RESULTS: Patients with cirrhosis displayed higher serum levels of LPS (55.8 [42.2-79.9] vs. 23.0 [7.0-34.0]pg/ml, p<0.001), factor VIII (172.0 [130.0-278.0] vs. 39.0 [26.0-47.0]U/dl, p<0.0001), vWf (265.0 [185.0-366.0] vs. 57.0 [48.0-65.0]U/dl, p<0.001) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA (88% vs. 3%, p<0.001, n=34) compared to controls. Serum LPS correlated significantly with factor VIII (r=0.80, p<0.001) and vWf (r=0.63, p<0.001). Only LPS (beta-coefficient=0.70, p<0.0001) independently predicted factor VIII levels. The in vitro study showed that LPS provoked factor VIII and vWf release from HUVEC via formation and secretion of Weibel-Palade bodies, a phenomenon blunted by pre-treating HUVEC with an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides the first evidence that LPS derived from gut microbiota increases the systemic levels of factor VIII via stimulating its release by endothelial cells. Lay summary: Cirrhosis is associated with thrombosis in portal and systemic circulation. Enhanced levels of factor VIII have been suggested to play a role but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we show that patients with cirrhosis display a concomitant increase of factor VIII and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and suggest that LPS contributes to the release of factor VIII from endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Cirrhosis; Endotoxin; Factor VIII; Hypercoagulability; LPS; von Willebrand factor

Gut-derived endotoxin stimulates factor VIII secretion from endothelial cells. Implications for hypercoagulability in cirrhosis

RAPARELLI, Valeria
Secondo
;
BASILI, Stefania;
2017

Abstract

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis display enhanced blood levels of factor VIII, which may result in harmful activation of the clotting system; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study in patients with cirrhosis (n=61) and matched controls (n=61) comparing blood levels of factor VIII, von Willebrand factor (vWf), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA. Furthermore, we performed an in vitro study to investigate if LPS, in a concentration range similar to that found in the peripheral circulation of cirrhotic patients, was able to elicit factor VIII secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). RESULTS: Patients with cirrhosis displayed higher serum levels of LPS (55.8 [42.2-79.9] vs. 23.0 [7.0-34.0]pg/ml, p<0.001), factor VIII (172.0 [130.0-278.0] vs. 39.0 [26.0-47.0]U/dl, p<0.0001), vWf (265.0 [185.0-366.0] vs. 57.0 [48.0-65.0]U/dl, p<0.001) and positivity for Escherichia coli DNA (88% vs. 3%, p<0.001, n=34) compared to controls. Serum LPS correlated significantly with factor VIII (r=0.80, p<0.001) and vWf (r=0.63, p<0.001). Only LPS (beta-coefficient=0.70, p<0.0001) independently predicted factor VIII levels. The in vitro study showed that LPS provoked factor VIII and vWf release from HUVEC via formation and secretion of Weibel-Palade bodies, a phenomenon blunted by pre-treating HUVEC with an inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides the first evidence that LPS derived from gut microbiota increases the systemic levels of factor VIII via stimulating its release by endothelial cells. Lay summary: Cirrhosis is associated with thrombosis in portal and systemic circulation. Enhanced levels of factor VIII have been suggested to play a role but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here we show that patients with cirrhosis display a concomitant increase of factor VIII and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and suggest that LPS contributes to the release of factor VIII from endothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. KEYWORDS: Cirrhosis; Endotoxin; Factor VIII; Hypercoagulability; LPS; von Willebrand factor
2017
Carnevale, Roberto; Raparelli, Valeria; Nocella, Cristina; Bartimoccia, Simona; Novo, Marta; Severino, Anna; DE FALCO, Elena; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Pa...espandi
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in SFERA sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2433746
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 40
  • Scopus 98
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 82
social impact