The Ciota Ciara cave is a Middle Palaeolithic site located in Piedmont (north-western Italy) and it is the only one systematically investigated in the region. It opens at 670 m a.s.l. on the west side of Monte Fenera and its archaeological deposit has a stratigraphic sequence documenting several and repeated human frequentations. Four archaeological layers have been identified (103, 13, 14 and 15) and are characterized by lithic assemblages where vein quartz is the main exploited raw material. The upper level (13) was already subject to technological and functional studies, but the enlargement of the excavated area made necessary a completion of the technological data. The aim of this work is to deal with a complete technological and functional study of the lithic assemblage of the four archaeological layers of the Ciota Ciara cave to face the issues of predetermination and adaptation of the reduction sequences to the raw materials features. The technological analysis is based on the concept of chaîne opératoire and refers to the classical definitions of the S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois methods for the identification of the different exploitation strategies. The concepts of curated and expedient technology are also applied to the present study. We finally refer to the huge debate concerning the concept of predetermination related to cores that show reduced or none phases of core configuration for the analysis and interpretation of the considered lithic assemblage. The results obtained show that the general behaviour can be interpreted as expedient, both from a technological and a functional point of view. The Middle Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of the Ciota Ciara cave adapted their “technological background” to the resources available and put into action flexible adaptation strategies. Even in the shortness or absence of phases of core configuration, predetermination can be observed in the adaptation of Levallois and discoid concepts to the natural constraints of the pebbles chosen as cores. The natural convexities are exploited to obtain Levallois and discoid flakes after an intentional choice made by the knappers. In order to deeply investigate the characteristics of the technological behaviour of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited the site, the use-wear analysis is a fundamental additional source of information and it is here aimed to understand if there is or not a differential use of the lithic artefacts according to their typology and/or to the knapping method.

Expedient behaviour and predetermination at the Ciota Ciara cave (north-western Italy) during Middle Palaeolithic

Daffara, Sara
Co-primo
;
Berruti Gabriele Luigi Francesco
Co-primo
;
Arzarello, Marta
Ultimo
2021

Abstract

The Ciota Ciara cave is a Middle Palaeolithic site located in Piedmont (north-western Italy) and it is the only one systematically investigated in the region. It opens at 670 m a.s.l. on the west side of Monte Fenera and its archaeological deposit has a stratigraphic sequence documenting several and repeated human frequentations. Four archaeological layers have been identified (103, 13, 14 and 15) and are characterized by lithic assemblages where vein quartz is the main exploited raw material. The upper level (13) was already subject to technological and functional studies, but the enlargement of the excavated area made necessary a completion of the technological data. The aim of this work is to deal with a complete technological and functional study of the lithic assemblage of the four archaeological layers of the Ciota Ciara cave to face the issues of predetermination and adaptation of the reduction sequences to the raw materials features. The technological analysis is based on the concept of chaîne opératoire and refers to the classical definitions of the S.S.D.A., discoid and Levallois methods for the identification of the different exploitation strategies. The concepts of curated and expedient technology are also applied to the present study. We finally refer to the huge debate concerning the concept of predetermination related to cores that show reduced or none phases of core configuration for the analysis and interpretation of the considered lithic assemblage. The results obtained show that the general behaviour can be interpreted as expedient, both from a technological and a functional point of view. The Middle Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers of the Ciota Ciara cave adapted their “technological background” to the resources available and put into action flexible adaptation strategies. Even in the shortness or absence of phases of core configuration, predetermination can be observed in the adaptation of Levallois and discoid concepts to the natural constraints of the pebbles chosen as cores. The natural convexities are exploited to obtain Levallois and discoid flakes after an intentional choice made by the knappers. In order to deeply investigate the characteristics of the technological behaviour of the hunter-gatherers that inhabited the site, the use-wear analysis is a fundamental additional source of information and it is here aimed to understand if there is or not a differential use of the lithic artefacts according to their typology and/or to the knapping method.
Daffara, Sara; Berruti, Gabriele Luigi Francesco; Arzarello, Marta
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Daffara et al. 2021 - Ciota Ciara.pdf

solo gestori archivio

Descrizione: Article in press
Tipologia: Full text (versione editoriale)
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 16.66 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
16.66 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia
1-s2.0-S104061822100001X-main.pdf

solo gestori archivio

Descrizione: Full text editoriale
Tipologia: Full text (versione editoriale)
Licenza: NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto
Dimensione 16.66 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
16.66 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2432056
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 1
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 2
social impact