Background: Although the positive effects of sports on body image perception are well described in the literature, rhythmic gymnasts have been reported to be at greater risk of developing body dissatisfaction and possibly eating disorders. The reason is that athletes engaged in aesthetic sports may be subject to greater pressure to be thin in order to adhere to the norms of that sport. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate body image perception and body composition in a sample of pre-menarcheal rhythmic gymnasts and to assess the influence of sport practice. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on a total sample of 135 girls: 64 were preadolescent rhythmic gymnasts (10.1 ± 1.8 years) divided into competitive and non-competitive athletes, while the other 71 schoolgirls (11.4 ± 0.3 years) were included as a control group. Anthropometric traits were directly collected, and BMI and body composition parameters were calculated. Body image perception and body image satisfaction were evaluated through body image indexes. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Anthropometric traits and body composition parameters varied significantly between gymnasts and controls and between competitive and non-competitive subgroups, especially when adiposity indicators were compared. In general, rhythmic gymnasts showed a perception of their body consistent with their anthropometric characteristics and low body dissatisfaction, with competitive girls choosing a thinner silhouette as their ideal. A new index, FIDSPORT, developed by us as a simple measure of what gymnasts believe is the ideal gymnast figure compared to their actual figure, reported higher dissatisfaction between their perceived body and the body considered ideal for their sport. Moreover, rhythmic gymnasts showed a desire for a skinnier body than the control group. Practice of rhythmic gymnastics and BMI were negatively correlated with general ideal figure. Conclusions: All participants wanted to be thinner, but the ideal body image of gymnasts was thinner than that of schoolgirls. In addition, as a result of body satisfaction transiency, the ideal gymnast body image showed even lower values than the general ideal body image. This trend was well quantified by the FIDSport when compared to the FID(Feel-minus-Ideal-Discrepancy).

Anthropometric indicators of body image dissatisfaction and perception inconsistency in young rhythmic gymnastics

Zaccagni L.
Primo
;
Rinaldo N.
Secondo
;
Gualdi-Russo E.
Ultimo
2019

Abstract

Background: Although the positive effects of sports on body image perception are well described in the literature, rhythmic gymnasts have been reported to be at greater risk of developing body dissatisfaction and possibly eating disorders. The reason is that athletes engaged in aesthetic sports may be subject to greater pressure to be thin in order to adhere to the norms of that sport. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate body image perception and body composition in a sample of pre-menarcheal rhythmic gymnasts and to assess the influence of sport practice. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on a total sample of 135 girls: 64 were preadolescent rhythmic gymnasts (10.1 ± 1.8 years) divided into competitive and non-competitive athletes, while the other 71 schoolgirls (11.4 ± 0.3 years) were included as a control group. Anthropometric traits were directly collected, and BMI and body composition parameters were calculated. Body image perception and body image satisfaction were evaluated through body image indexes. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA adjusted for age and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Anthropometric traits and body composition parameters varied significantly between gymnasts and controls and between competitive and non-competitive subgroups, especially when adiposity indicators were compared. In general, rhythmic gymnasts showed a perception of their body consistent with their anthropometric characteristics and low body dissatisfaction, with competitive girls choosing a thinner silhouette as their ideal. A new index, FIDSPORT, developed by us as a simple measure of what gymnasts believe is the ideal gymnast figure compared to their actual figure, reported higher dissatisfaction between their perceived body and the body considered ideal for their sport. Moreover, rhythmic gymnasts showed a desire for a skinnier body than the control group. Practice of rhythmic gymnastics and BMI were negatively correlated with general ideal figure. Conclusions: All participants wanted to be thinner, but the ideal body image of gymnasts was thinner than that of schoolgirls. In addition, as a result of body satisfaction transiency, the ideal gymnast body image showed even lower values than the general ideal body image. This trend was well quantified by the FIDSport when compared to the FID(Feel-minus-Ideal-Discrepancy).
2019
Zaccagni, L.; Rinaldo, N.; Gualdi-Russo, E.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2417989
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