The female lower vaginal tract has long been known to have an active microbiota, with Lactobacilli genus representing the prevalent species, and alterations in the vaginal microbiota are known to play a role in different pathological conditions, including bacterial vaginosis, sexually transmitted diseases, HPV persistence, and cervical cancer. By contrast, the uterus was considered sterile until recently, when the advent of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies identified a unique uterine microbiota differing from that of the vagina.1 The uterine bacterial load is estimated to be 100–10,000-times lower than that of the vaginal microbiome, and, contrary to the vaginal and cervix microbiota, uterine bacteria grow in mildly alkaline conditions, contrasting to the Lactobacillus-dominated low pH environment of the vagina.2 The microbiota in the uterus can derive from ascension via the cervix, or migrate to the uterus via the haematogenous spread, via the sperm, and other routes (e.g., retrograde spread through the fallopian tubes or gynaecological procedures).1,2 Although the exact role and mechanisms of micro-organisms in the uterus are unclear, recent studies suggest that microbiota could affect uterine receptivity, influencing endometrium fertility. In addition, uterine microbiota composition has been associated with several gynecological conditions, including endometriosis, dysfunctional menstrual bleeding, and cancer.3-5 In particular, the simultaneous presence of Atopobium vaginae and Porphyromonas species resulted particularly significant in endometrial cancer.5 Uterine colonization with bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria has been suggested to promote carcinogenesis through microbiota-mediated pathophysiologic changes.6 Nevertheless, a cause-effect relationship has not been established yet. These studies provided a starting point to understand uterine physiology in health and disease, but there is currently a need for studies investigating host-microbiota interactions, to understand the impact of the micro-organisms on the local endometrial microenvironment. Based on this, our study was aimed to analyze in vitro the effect of A. vaginae and P. somerae on endometrial cells, focusing on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, being those implied in the establishment of an inflammatory environment potentially favoring the onset/progression of endometrial cancer.
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|Titolo:||Atopobium vaginae And Porphyromonas somerae Induce Proinflammatory Cytokines Expression In Endometrial Cells: A Possible Implication For Endometrial Cancer?|
CASELLI, Elisabetta (Primo)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista|