From a political perspective, the external relations of Etruria between the fifth and third centuries BCE were deeply related to the struggle for supremacy in the Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas, and the policies of the major powers of the time-Athens and Syracuse. Etruria was important both for the control of grain markets of the Amo and Po Valleys and the acquisition of iron and other metal deposits of Tuscany, but also as a bridgehead for trade with Central Europe. Such intense exchanges did not only involve the political and commercial dimension: data provided by personal names attests to the stable presence of Greek individuals in Etruria at different levels of society. Some episodes mentioned in the literary sources allow us to reconstruct the dynamics of the expansion and contraction of the Athenian and Syracusan spheres of influence in the western Mediterranean, but it is from the archaeological data-and above all from the importations of ceramics-that it is possible to shed light on the issue. The situations shown by the archeological record vary widely in different parts of Etruria, both because of the different social structures of the Etruscan cities and the different international political balance in the middle and lower Tyrrhenian Sea and in the Adriatic Sea. In the fifth century, the Syracusan hegemony grew in the Tyrrhenian Sea, while Athens resumed its own policy towards the western Mediterranean, vying for control of the routes leading to the grain markets of Spina, Adria, and beyond. The end of the century saw a deep change, with the arrival on the scene of the Campanians, who took Capua in 423 BCE. The allocation of the Samnites in the Nolan and Picentinian countryside mark the end of the Etruscans in Campania, while the arrival of the Gauls in the Po Valley and the subsequent crushing of the system closes the era of Etruscan control of that region. The Etruscan world is thus enclosed within the boundaries that will mark Etruria in the administrative division of the Augustan regiones. Rome was going to subtract Veii in 396, while Syracuse was going to plunder the sanctuary of Pyrgi in 384. Within the framework outlined by these events, the political structure of the Etruscan world elaborates a profound transformation of social geography and geometry, which has different methods and timing in various districts of the region. After a period of reactivation in the late Classical and early Hellenistic ages, by the first half of the third century, the rise of Rome will mark the beginning of the slow decline of dynamism of Tyrrhenian Etruria.
Viene tracciato il quadro delle relazioni internazionali delle varie realtà etrusche, con particolare riguardo alla circolazione della ceramica greca e magno greca
|Titolo:||External Relationship, 450 - 250 BC|
BRUNI, Stefano (Corresponding)
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||02.1 Contributo in volume (Capitolo, articolo)|