A careful review of petrological and geochemical data on the Parana-Etendeka igneous province is reported, with particular attention being devoted to the relationships between high-MgO CFB (tholeiitic basalts-picrites) and nearly coeval alkaline-carbonatite complexes linked to the same extensional tectonics on a regional scale. At 135-130 Ma, the tectonomagmatic activity was focused in Etendeka, the centre of the restored province, and characterised by an exclusive occurrence of the hottest and deepest high-MgO CFB (potential temperature T-p up to 1590 degrees C and pressure up to 5 GPa) possessing the same Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the "Gough" geochemical component, a marker of the initial Tristan plume activity. Etendeka high-MgO CFB thus represent the most genuine proxies of sublithospheric melts generated at the plume axis and are relatively unaffected by lithospheric contamination. Nearly coeval (133-128 Ma) alkaline carbonatite complexes cluster around the extensional structures of the Ponta Grossa Arch (e.g., Jacupiranga and Juquia in Brazil) and the Damara Belt (e.g., Erongo, Okurusu, Okenyenya and Paresis in Namibia), both of which intersect the early track of the south Atlantic opening. Compared to high-MgO CFB, alkaline magmas display distinctive isotopic signatures and an incompatible element distribution consistent with their generation from lithospheric mantle sources, which were variably metasomatised (veined?) by amphibole and phlogopite. Metasomes of alkaline mantle sources have a HIMU affinity and are dominated by amphibole in Namibia, whereas they display EM1 tendency and a more relevant role of phlogopite in Brazil, which implies important lithospheric differences at a regional scale. The tectonomagmatic features of Parana-Etendeka -also shared by other Gondwana LIPs, such as Deccan and Karoo- can be reconciled by a generalized model where a hot plume impinging on a relatively thick lithosphere caused, in the axial zone, the contemporaneous generation and rise of high-MgO CFB and alkaline magmas from distinct asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle sources, respectively. In the asthenosphere, the volatile-poor solidus was crossed under an adiabatic thermal regime, mostly in the range of 4 to 5 GPa and T-p 1500 to 1600 degrees C with the development of high-MgO CFB. In the overlying metasomatised lithosphere, the plume effects caused a perturbation of the conductive thermal regime and a crossing of volatile-rich solidus (mostly P 2-3 GPa, T-p 1300-1400 degrees C with the generation of alkaline melts from the most fusible (hydrated and carbonated) mantle domains.

Coexistence of alkaline-carbonatite complexes and high-MgO CFB in the Parana-Etendeka province: Insights on plume-lithosphere interactions in the Gondwana realm

Claudio Natali
Primo
Conceptualization
;
Luigi Beccaluva
Secondo
Conceptualization
;
Gianluca Bianchini
Penultimo
Conceptualization
;
Franca Siena
Ultimo
Writing – Review & Editing
2018

Abstract

A careful review of petrological and geochemical data on the Parana-Etendeka igneous province is reported, with particular attention being devoted to the relationships between high-MgO CFB (tholeiitic basalts-picrites) and nearly coeval alkaline-carbonatite complexes linked to the same extensional tectonics on a regional scale. At 135-130 Ma, the tectonomagmatic activity was focused in Etendeka, the centre of the restored province, and characterised by an exclusive occurrence of the hottest and deepest high-MgO CFB (potential temperature T-p up to 1590 degrees C and pressure up to 5 GPa) possessing the same Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the "Gough" geochemical component, a marker of the initial Tristan plume activity. Etendeka high-MgO CFB thus represent the most genuine proxies of sublithospheric melts generated at the plume axis and are relatively unaffected by lithospheric contamination. Nearly coeval (133-128 Ma) alkaline carbonatite complexes cluster around the extensional structures of the Ponta Grossa Arch (e.g., Jacupiranga and Juquia in Brazil) and the Damara Belt (e.g., Erongo, Okurusu, Okenyenya and Paresis in Namibia), both of which intersect the early track of the south Atlantic opening. Compared to high-MgO CFB, alkaline magmas display distinctive isotopic signatures and an incompatible element distribution consistent with their generation from lithospheric mantle sources, which were variably metasomatised (veined?) by amphibole and phlogopite. Metasomes of alkaline mantle sources have a HIMU affinity and are dominated by amphibole in Namibia, whereas they display EM1 tendency and a more relevant role of phlogopite in Brazil, which implies important lithospheric differences at a regional scale. The tectonomagmatic features of Parana-Etendeka -also shared by other Gondwana LIPs, such as Deccan and Karoo- can be reconciled by a generalized model where a hot plume impinging on a relatively thick lithosphere caused, in the axial zone, the contemporaneous generation and rise of high-MgO CFB and alkaline magmas from distinct asthenospheric and lithospheric mantle sources, respectively. In the asthenosphere, the volatile-poor solidus was crossed under an adiabatic thermal regime, mostly in the range of 4 to 5 GPa and T-p 1500 to 1600 degrees C with the development of high-MgO CFB. In the overlying metasomatised lithosphere, the plume effects caused a perturbation of the conductive thermal regime and a crossing of volatile-rich solidus (mostly P 2-3 GPa, T-p 1300-1400 degrees C with the generation of alkaline melts from the most fusible (hydrated and carbonated) mantle domains.
Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi; Bianchini, Gianluca; Siena, Franca
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