In hot climates tiled pitched roofs significantly reduce the heat transfer across the roof structure, due to the ventilated air layer between tiles and roofing underlay formed by the arrangement of battens and counter-battens supporting the tiles. This so-called Above Sheathing Ventilation (ASV) depends on the air entering and leaving at the eaves, ridge and the gaps between the tiles. With a view towards higher energy savings in space cooling, the natural and forced convection occurring in ASV could be enhanced by increasing the roof air permeability by means of novel tile shapes, as here analysed in two stages. The first stage of designing the new tile shapes was to measure the air permeability for a type of existing tile (Marseillaise style) using an experimental test rig, by monitoring the volumetric flow rate through the tiles over a range of pressure differences across the tiles. Then, a three-dimensional CFD model was implemented to replicate the full test rig geometry, and this was calibrated against the experimental data. In the next stage, the calibration was used to support the design of novel Marseillaise tile shapes, and to compare their performance against existing tiles. Finally, in order to analyse the variation in air flow under typical wind conditions for a pitched roof, a parametric study was undertaken, consisting of 72 scenarios varying wind speed, direction and angle of incidence. An increase in volumetric flow rate through the tiles was found to be related not only to an increase in the open area between tiles, but also to the design of the tile locks. By redesigning the geometry of these locks, whilst still giving consideration to their primary purpose of preventing the ingress of driving rain, it was possible to yield an improvement in air permeability of up to 100% in comparison with the original designs. Additionally, these novel designs were shown to increase the air flow rate as the wind angle moved from being directly up the roof slope around to the side, in contrast to the decrease seen with existing tile shapes.
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|Titolo:||CFD analysis of roof tile coverings|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista|