An operator-neutral, objective method was implemented to comparatively assess liver pathology in 30 specimens of common carp (Cyprinus carpio): 20 after experimental flow-through exposure to two perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) dosages (10 fish exposed to 200 ng l−1 and 10 fish exposed to 2 mg l−1) for 56 days and 10 unexposed (negative control). The method relies on texture analysis as a complementary approach to traditional histopathology and chemical dosage analysis performed previously on the same experimental material. Texture features data were analyzed by means of Redundancy Analysis (RDA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Canonical Variates Analysis (CVA). LDA resulted in the correct classification of 80% of cases (24 out of 30 cases) with a sensitivity of 83.3% and a specificity of 83.3. In particular, four male samples from the low dosage group (200 ng l−1) were misclassified as unexposed fish and two female samples from the unexposed group were misclassified as low dosage exposed. Nevertheless, PFOA liver chemical dosage analysis results were the same both in unexposed and in low dosage group fish, all below the limit of detection. No sample from the high dosage group (2 mg l−1) has ever been misclassified. Interestingly, texture features correlated with the PFOA concentrations detected in the liver of each sampled fish. In the present study the technique of texture analysis was combined with techniques of multivariate exploratory data analysis (RDA, LDA/CVA). This approach resulted in a robust, sufficiently sensitive and specific means to study PFOA-induced liver pathology. The new method can discriminate between unexposed and two PFOA exposed groups with better confidence and in a more affordable way, compared to chemical quantification of liver PFOA. The texture features correlated well with liver PFOA concentrations and objectively quantified degenerative liver morphology. In conclusion the overall approach may be a suitable candidate as a reliable and broad-ranging method for biomarker analysis of exposure and effect.
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|Titolo:||Texture analysis in liver of common carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) sub-chronically exposed to perfluorooctanoic acid|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista|