Background: An altered amniotic cytokine profile has been reported in inflammatory pregnancy complications with a leading role for IL-6, a marker of the foetal systemic inflammatory response. Up to this date there is no exhaustive information neither on the foetal cytokine balance nor on the best method for its modulation. We aimed to evaluate the influence of vaginal lactoferrin administration on amniotic fluid concentration of 47 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Methods: Sixty women undergoing genetic amniocentesis were enrolled in an open-label clinical trial. 300 mg of vaginal lactoferrin (Florence, Italy) were randomly administered to obtain 3 groups: A, 20 untreated patients; B and C (20 patients in each) respectively treated 4 and 12 h before amniocentesis. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors concentrations were quantified by a magnetic bead Luminex multiplex immunoassays panel technology. Data analysis was performed with the software Stata (v. 13.1) and GraphPad Prism (v. 5). Group comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U tests, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among the 47 tested mediators, 24 (51.06%) were influenced by lactoferrin. 11 (23.4%), showed a highly significant difference (p <0.001); among these IL-9, IL-15, IFN-γ, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-1α and MCP-3 underwent a down-regulation, while IL-17 and FGF-basic, G-CSF, GM-CSF an up-regulation. Difference between group C and both B and A was small for IL-15, IP-10, IL-1α, MCP-3, while it was negligible for IL-9, IFN-γ and TNF-α. IL-17 and the 3 growth factors were strongly enhanced in B and C groups. IL-17, FGF-basic and GM-CSF showed increasing concentrations in both B and C groups, while G-CSF resulted up-regulated only in group C. Significance was intermediate (p < 0.01) for the down regulated IL-2RA, IL-12p40 and IFNα2 (6.38%) while it was small for 10 mediators (21.27%) 7 of which (IL-2, IL-4, eotaxin, PDGF-BB, RANTES, IL-18 and MIF) down-regulated and 3 (MCP-1, IL-3, and SDF-1α) up-regulated. Conclusion: Lactoferrin down-regulates 17 pro-inflammatory amniotic mediators while up-regulating 7 anti- inflammatory amniotic mediators, 5 of which definitively belonging to an anti-inflammatory profile. These findings open to clinical investigation on its use against inflammatory complications of pregnancy.

Influence of Vaginal Lactoferrin Administration on Amniotic Fluid Cytokines and its Role Against Inflammatory Complications of Pregnancy

MARITATI, Martina
Primo
;
SERACENI, Silva;TRENTINI, Alessandro;VESCE, Fortunato
;
CONTINI, Carlo
Ultimo
2017

Abstract

Background: An altered amniotic cytokine profile has been reported in inflammatory pregnancy complications with a leading role for IL-6, a marker of the foetal systemic inflammatory response. Up to this date there is no exhaustive information neither on the foetal cytokine balance nor on the best method for its modulation. We aimed to evaluate the influence of vaginal lactoferrin administration on amniotic fluid concentration of 47 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Methods: Sixty women undergoing genetic amniocentesis were enrolled in an open-label clinical trial. 300 mg of vaginal lactoferrin (Florence, Italy) were randomly administered to obtain 3 groups: A, 20 untreated patients; B and C (20 patients in each) respectively treated 4 and 12 h before amniocentesis. Cytokines, chemokines and growth factors concentrations were quantified by a magnetic bead Luminex multiplex immunoassays panel technology. Data analysis was performed with the software Stata (v. 13.1) and GraphPad Prism (v. 5). Group comparisons were performed using Kruskal–Wallis followed by Mann–Whitney U tests, with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Among the 47 tested mediators, 24 (51.06%) were influenced by lactoferrin. 11 (23.4%), showed a highly significant difference (p <0.001); among these IL-9, IL-15, IFN-γ, IP-10, TNF-α, IL-1α and MCP-3 underwent a down-regulation, while IL-17 and FGF-basic, G-CSF, GM-CSF an up-regulation. Difference between group C and both B and A was small for IL-15, IP-10, IL-1α, MCP-3, while it was negligible for IL-9, IFN-γ and TNF-α. IL-17 and the 3 growth factors were strongly enhanced in B and C groups. IL-17, FGF-basic and GM-CSF showed increasing concentrations in both B and C groups, while G-CSF resulted up-regulated only in group C. Significance was intermediate (p < 0.01) for the down regulated IL-2RA, IL-12p40 and IFNα2 (6.38%) while it was small for 10 mediators (21.27%) 7 of which (IL-2, IL-4, eotaxin, PDGF-BB, RANTES, IL-18 and MIF) down-regulated and 3 (MCP-1, IL-3, and SDF-1α) up-regulated. Conclusion: Lactoferrin down-regulates 17 pro-inflammatory amniotic mediators while up-regulating 7 anti- inflammatory amniotic mediators, 5 of which definitively belonging to an anti-inflammatory profile. These findings open to clinical investigation on its use against inflammatory complications of pregnancy.
Maritati, Martina; Comar, Manola; Zanotta, Nunzia; Seraceni, Silva; Trentini, Alessandro; Corazza, Fabrizio; Vesce, Fortunato; Contini, Carlo
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Influence_of_vaginal_lactoferrin_administration_on.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: Influence of Vaginal Administration
Tipologia: Pre-print
Licenza: PUBBLICO - Pubblico con Copyright
Dimensione 615.99 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
615.99 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri
s12950-017-0152-9.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Full text (versione editoriale)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 599.53 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
599.53 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11392/2366440
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 8
  • Scopus 11
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact