BACKGROUND: The attitude of athletes towards anti-doping interventions was surveyed among biathletes by a properly developed questionnaire. METHODS: Topics and items were identified by a multidisciplinary team. A Demographics and an Awareness sections exploring respondents' characteristics and knowledge of the anti- doping rules were added. The anonymous, self-administered tool was distributed to athletes during two international events. Two hundred forty-four biathletes participated in the survey. The structure of the questionnaire, determined by factor analysis, included three domains: Safety (items n=12) Acceptance (n=11), and Satisfaction (n=13) exploring respectively the perceived protection from cheating, the acceptance of the limitations on daily activities imposed by the anti-doping interventions and the satisfaction with anti-doping rules and actions. The domain scores and a general anti-doping attitude score were calculated. RESULTS: The questionnaire, which displayed construct validity (r=0.500, p<0.001), good internal consistency (α=0.82) and significant acceptable test-retest reliability (k=0.59), revealed a good anti-doping attitude (general score: 64.9/100±8.8) and in relation to each domain a satisfaction of athletes with anti-doping interventions (65.3±13.6), good acceptance of the related restrictions (70.1±10.9), and concerns about safety (59.5±11.9), which was the lowest scoring domain (p<0.001). The degree of awareness, differently from age and gender, influenced the anti-doping attitude score. CONCLUSIONS: The new questionnaire revealed a positive mood of biathletes towards anti-doping interventions, pointed out their necessity of protection from cheating and highlighted the positive influence of awareness of the rules on anti-doping attitude. The questionnaire is not sport-specific, which allows any international federation to evaluate the impact of anti-doping strategies on athletes.
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|Titolo:||Anti-doping attitudes among elite athletes: a cross sectional study in biathlon using a suitably developed questionnaire.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista|