BACKGROUND: The attitude of athletes towards anti-doping interventions was surveyed among biathletes by a properly developed questionnaire. METHODS: Topics and items were identified by a multidisciplinary team. A Demographics and an Awareness sections exploring respondents' characteristics and knowledge of the anti- doping rules were added. The anonymous, self-administered tool was distributed to athletes during two international events. Two hundred forty-four biathletes participated in the survey. The structure of the questionnaire, determined by factor analysis, included three domains: Safety (items n=12) Acceptance (n=11), and Satisfaction (n=13) exploring respectively the perceived protection from cheating, the acceptance of the limitations on daily activities imposed by the anti-doping interventions and the satisfaction with anti-doping rules and actions. The domain scores and a general anti-doping attitude score were calculated. RESULTS: The questionnaire, which displayed construct validity (r=0.500, p<0.001), good internal consistency (α=0.82) and significant acceptable test-retest reliability (k=0.59), revealed a good anti-doping attitude (general score: 64.9/100±8.8) and in relation to each domain a satisfaction of athletes with anti-doping interventions (65.3±13.6), good acceptance of the related restrictions (70.1±10.9), and concerns about safety (59.5±11.9), which was the lowest scoring domain (p<0.001). The degree of awareness, differently from age and gender, influenced the anti-doping attitude score. CONCLUSIONS: The new questionnaire revealed a positive mood of biathletes towards anti-doping interventions, pointed out their necessity of protection from cheating and highlighted the positive influence of awareness of the rules on anti-doping attitude. The questionnaire is not sport-specific, which allows any international federation to evaluate the impact of anti-doping strategies on athletes.

Anti-doping attitudes among elite athletes: a cross sectional study in biathlon using a suitably developed questionnaire.

LAMBERTI, Nicola;MALAGONI, Anna Maria;FELISATTI, Michele;CARACCIOLO, Stefano;MANFREDINI, Fabio
2017

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The attitude of athletes towards anti-doping interventions was surveyed among biathletes by a properly developed questionnaire. METHODS: Topics and items were identified by a multidisciplinary team. A Demographics and an Awareness sections exploring respondents' characteristics and knowledge of the anti- doping rules were added. The anonymous, self-administered tool was distributed to athletes during two international events. Two hundred forty-four biathletes participated in the survey. The structure of the questionnaire, determined by factor analysis, included three domains: Safety (items n=12) Acceptance (n=11), and Satisfaction (n=13) exploring respectively the perceived protection from cheating, the acceptance of the limitations on daily activities imposed by the anti-doping interventions and the satisfaction with anti-doping rules and actions. The domain scores and a general anti-doping attitude score were calculated. RESULTS: The questionnaire, which displayed construct validity (r=0.500, p<0.001), good internal consistency (α=0.82) and significant acceptable test-retest reliability (k=0.59), revealed a good anti-doping attitude (general score: 64.9/100±8.8) and in relation to each domain a satisfaction of athletes with anti-doping interventions (65.3±13.6), good acceptance of the related restrictions (70.1±10.9), and concerns about safety (59.5±11.9), which was the lowest scoring domain (p<0.001). The degree of awareness, differently from age and gender, influenced the anti-doping attitude score. CONCLUSIONS: The new questionnaire revealed a positive mood of biathletes towards anti-doping interventions, pointed out their necessity of protection from cheating and highlighted the positive influence of awareness of the rules on anti-doping attitude. The questionnaire is not sport-specific, which allows any international federation to evaluate the impact of anti-doping strategies on athletes.
Lamberti, Nicola; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Felisatti, Michele; Caracciolo, Stefano; Resch, N; Litmanen, H; Dalfollo, D; Jeannier, P; Zhukovskaja, L; Carrabre, Je; Manfredini, Fabio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/2365367
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