Arma Vairana is located near the town of Cerisola in Northern Italy, 10 km from the Mediterranean Sea. The area is mountainous (right down to the coast), and the cave is located in a steep-walled valley within the mountains. The entrance to the cave is blocked by a sizeable rock fall, but inside it is large, being roughly 40 meters in horizontal depth. It is a phreatic tube with a triangular form. Recently, it has been recorded as an archaeological site by the local authorities, although it has never been officially excavated. Informal investigation was carried out by an amateur archaeologist, who opened up several small excavation pits. These revealed deposits containing Mousterian and Upper Paleolithic artifacts and zooarchaeological remains. The Mousterian and Upper Paleolithic layers are separated by sediments, which (from cursory inspection) appear to be culturally sterile; however, Uluzzian layers do not always exhibit high artifact densities . Thus, a key focus of the project will be the careful documentation of the layer separating the Middle and Upper Paleolithic. Geoarchaeologically, the site is interesting because it underwent some erosion that has exposed the deposits on the surface. The erosion is likely a result of the partial collapse of the entrance to the cave.
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