In Alzheimer's disease, the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain occurs in the parenchyma and cerebrovasculature. Several evidences support that the neuronal demise is potentiated by vascular alterations in the early stages of the disease, but the mechanisms responsible for the dysfunction of brain endothelial cells that underlie these cerebrovascular changes are unknown. Using rat brain microvascular endothelial cells, we found that short-term treatment with a toxic dose of Aβ1-40 inhibits the Ca2+ refill and retention ability of the endoplasmic reticulum and enhances the mitochondrial and cytosolic response to adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-stimulated endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. Upon prolonged Aβ1-40 exposure, Ca2+ homeostasis was restored concomitantly with a decrease in the levels of proteins involved in its regulation operating at the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria. Along with perturbations in Ca2+ regulation, an early increase in the levels of oxidants and a decrease in the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione were observed in Aβ1-40-treated endothelial cells. Under these conditions, the nuclear levels of oxidative stress-related transcription factors, namely, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2, were enhanced as well as the protein levels of target genes. In conclusion, Aβ1-40 affects several mechanisms involved in Ca2+ homeostasis and impairs the redox homeostasis simultaneously with stimulation of protective stress responses in brain endothelial cells. However, the imbalance between cell death and survival pathways leads to endothelial dysfunction that in turn contributes to cerebrovascular impairment in Alzheimer's disease.
|Titolo:||Amyloid-Beta Disrupts Calcium and Redox Homeostasis in Brain Endothelial Cells|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||03.1 Articolo su rivista|