After commenting on the etiopathogenesis and the classification, the authors describe particular types of abnormality and congenital anomalies of the external toes (excluding the hallux), subdividing them into abnormalities of deficiency (number or size), excess (number or size) and direction. The variable ratio between symptoms and deformity justifies the use of extreme prudence when assessing the indications for corrective surgery owing to the poor results that may follow. A poor outcome can basically be attributed to two reasons: a) the possible presence of local anatomical alterations (vascular and nervous anomalies, poor cutaneous trophism, etc.) frequently associated with abnormalities; b) the risk of turning an asymtomatic deformity into a morphologically correct but painful foot.
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