Horace’s references at Epode 6.13–14 to Archilochus as “Lycambes’ rejected son-in-law” and to Hipponax as “Bupalus’ enemy” proclaim these poets as his models in the Epodes. But, as has often been noted, it is unwise to over-privilege them as such. Horace himself warned us about this when at Epistles 1.19.19-25 he attacked slavish imitators and asserted that, while he imitated Archilochus’ meters and spirit in the Epodes, he did not reproduce Archilochus’ subject-matter and style: numeros animosque secutus / Archilochi, non res et agentia verba Lycamben (24–5). Further models for Horace’s Epodes can in fact be traced widely throughout Greek poetry. They include other archaic lyric poets (Semonides and Anacreon) and ancient comedy, which can both in their different ways exhibit the mocking attitude prevalent in the Epodes, as well as choral lyric, tragedy, even epic, and Hellenistic poetry.
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