Cloudwater samples were collected from November 1992 to March 1995 in Vallombrosa, a mountain site of the Tuscan Apennines (central Italy). Chemical analyses show that all examined inorganic ions contributed significantly to the total ionic content (TIC). The ratio SO4/NO4 ranged from 0.92 to 3.46 and was > 1 for 86% of samples. There is a wide range in the chemical composition of the cloudwater. The total ionic content ranged from 640 to 7476 Aeq l 1 and pH from 3.17 to 6.22. The liquid water content (LWC) ranged from 0.06 to 0.94 g m 3 and electrical conductivity from 47 to 485 AV 1. The total ionic content decreases while the liquid water content increases. Also analyzed were soluble trace metals (Fe, Pb, Cu, Mn, Cd, Al), synthetic anionic surfactants and the methanesulphonic acid. Chemical analyses evidenced in some cases a high concentration of organic matter. The meteorological analysis for a few samples of individual passages was carried out for the possibility of establishing a correspondence between meteorological events and chemical composition. The sources (marine, crustal and anthropogenic) of chemical components were deduced.
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