Though the H-bond is well characterized as a D-H...:A three-center-four-electron interaction, the formulation of a general H-bond theory has turned out to be a rather formidable problem because of the extreme variability of the bonds formed (for instance, O-H...O energies range from 0.1 to 31 kcal/mol). This paper surveys our previous contributions to the problem, including: (a) the H-bond chemical leitmotifs (CLs), showing that there are only four classes of strong H-bonds and one of moderately strong ones; (b) the PA/pK(a) equalization principle, showing that the four CLs forming strong H-bonds are actually molecular devices apt to equalize the acid-base properties (PA or pKa) of the H-bond donor and acceptor groups; (c) the driving variable of the H-bond strength, which remains so identified as the difference Delta pK(a) = pK(AH)(D-H) - pK(BH)(A-H+) or, altematively, Delta PA=PA(D-)-PA(A); and, in particular, (d) the transition-state H-bond theory (TSHBT), which interprets the H-bond as a stationary point along the complete proton transfer pathway going from D-H...A to D...H-A via the D...H...A transition state. TSHBT is verified in connection with a series of seven 1-(X-phenylazo)-2-naphthols, a class of compounds forming a strong intramolecular resonance-assisted H-bond (RAHB), which is switched from N-H...O to N...H-O by the decreasing electron-withdrawing properties of the substituent X. The system is studied in terms of: (i) variable-temperature X-ray crystallography; (ii) DFT emulation of stationary points and full PT pathways; (iii) Marcus rate-equilibrium analysis correlated with substituent LFER Hammett parameters.

Outline of a transition-state hydrogen bond theory

GILLI, Paola;BERTOLASI, Valerio;PRETTO, Loretta;GILLI, Gastone
2006

Abstract

Though the H-bond is well characterized as a D-H...:A three-center-four-electron interaction, the formulation of a general H-bond theory has turned out to be a rather formidable problem because of the extreme variability of the bonds formed (for instance, O-H...O energies range from 0.1 to 31 kcal/mol). This paper surveys our previous contributions to the problem, including: (a) the H-bond chemical leitmotifs (CLs), showing that there are only four classes of strong H-bonds and one of moderately strong ones; (b) the PA/pK(a) equalization principle, showing that the four CLs forming strong H-bonds are actually molecular devices apt to equalize the acid-base properties (PA or pKa) of the H-bond donor and acceptor groups; (c) the driving variable of the H-bond strength, which remains so identified as the difference Delta pK(a) = pK(AH)(D-H) - pK(BH)(A-H+) or, altematively, Delta PA=PA(D-)-PA(A); and, in particular, (d) the transition-state H-bond theory (TSHBT), which interprets the H-bond as a stationary point along the complete proton transfer pathway going from D-H...A to D...H-A via the D...H...A transition state. TSHBT is verified in connection with a series of seven 1-(X-phenylazo)-2-naphthols, a class of compounds forming a strong intramolecular resonance-assisted H-bond (RAHB), which is switched from N-H...O to N...H-O by the decreasing electron-withdrawing properties of the substituent X. The system is studied in terms of: (i) variable-temperature X-ray crystallography; (ii) DFT emulation of stationary points and full PT pathways; (iii) Marcus rate-equilibrium analysis correlated with substituent LFER Hammett parameters.
Gilli, Paola; Bertolasi, Valerio; Pretto, Loretta; Gilli, Gastone
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11392/1203227
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