Background: Little is known about the mechanisms of bacterial interaction with implant materials in the oral cavity. Other surface characteristics, in addition to surface roughness, seemed to be extremely important in relation to plaque formation. Different adhesion affinities of bacteria have been reported for different materials. Anatase is a nanoparticle that can be applied to titanium surfaces as a coating. The anatase coating gives special characteristics to the implant surface: among them are some genetic effects on osteoblasts. In this study the antibacterial effect of anatase was investigated. Aim of this study was to characterize the percentage of surface covered by bacteria on commercially pure (c. p.) titanium and anatase-coated healing screws. Methods: Ten patients participated in this study. The protocol of the study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy. A total of 20 healing screws (10 Test and 10 Control) were used in this study. The Control screws were made of c.p. titanium, while the Test ones were coated with anatase. Neither cleaning procedures nor agents for chemical plaque control were applied to the healing screws for the complete duration of the test period. After seven days, all healing screws were removed, substituted and processed under scanning electron microscopy for evaluation of the portion of the surface covered by bacteria. Results: The supracrestal screw surface covered by bacteria on Test specimens was not significantly lower than that of Control screws (P = 0.174). The subcrestal screw surface and screw threads covered by bacteria on Test specimens was significantly lower than that of Control screws, and the P value was respectively (P = 0.001) and (P = 0.000). Conclusion: Our results showed that anatase could be a suitable material for coating implant abutments with a low colonization potential.
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